Incineration is the controlled burning of substances in an enclosed area. Incinerators burn waste under the effect of temperature, retention time, air, and other combustion factors. As wastes are heated, they are converted from solids and liquids into gases, which pass through air pollution control devices. Incinerators, depending on their permit, can accept most commercial and residential wastes including household garbage, industrial waste, medical or infectious waste, and hazardous waste. Some incinerators are designed to generate energy from the incineration process. These waste-to-energy facilities are known as resource recovery facilities.
Incinerators must meet waste handling requirements and air emission standards. Hazardous waste incinerators are regulated under rule 329 IAC 3.1 and 40 CFR 264, Subpart O. Solid waste incinerators are permitted under the solid waste processing facility rule (329 IAC 11). However solid waste incinerators are considered to be final disposal facilities under Indiana law (IC 13-11-2-82) for waste reporting and disposal fee purposes. Incinerators are also regulated by IDEM’s Office of Air Quality.
Solid Waste Incinerators
Solid waste incinerators accept municipal waste, construction and demolition debris, and other non-municipal wastes that are typical of a solid waste collector. Solid waste incinerators that accept off-site waste need a solid waste processing facility permit from IDEM's Office of Land Quality. Residues from a solid waste incinerator must be disposed of as solid waste as required by 329 IAC 10. All solid waste incinerators except on-site incinerators must report their data quarterly. On-site incinerators must report their data annually.
Infectious Waste Incinerators
Infectious waste incinerators accept waste defined by Indiana State Department of Health rules (410 IAC 1-3) as infectious that are determined to be nonhazardous waste. Some infectious waste-contaminated pharmaceuticals may be listed as hazardous waste, and therefore must be handled as hazardous waste. These incinerators may also accept certain noninfectious waste that is mixed with infectious waste. Infectious waste incinerators that accept off-site waste must have a solid waste processing facility permit from OLQ. Residue from an infectious waste incinerator may be disposed as solid waste according to rule 329 IAC 10. Currently, there are no commercial infectious waste incinerators in Indiana. All infectious waste incinerators except on-site incinerators must report their data quarterly. On-site incinerators must report their data annually.
Hazardous Waste Incinerators
Hazardous waste incinerators are regulated under 329 IAC 3.1 which references 40 CFR Subpart O. According to the hazardous waste rule, an incinerator is any enclosed device that uses controlled flame for combustion. This includes rotary kilns, liquid injectors, controlled air, fluidized bed, infrared, and plasma arc incinerators. Incinerators that process either on-site or off-site waste must have a hazardous waste permit as a treatment, storage, and disposal facility (TSDF). These facilities must comply with all the reporting requirements of a TSDF. Residues from these incinerators must be disposed as hazardous waste. Currently, there are no commercial.
For More Information or Assistance
Please contact the Solid Waste and Hazardous Waste Permit Staff for more information or assistance.