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Industrial Solid Waste

Industrial solid waste includes industrial process waste and pollution control waste that is generated by manufacturing or industrial processes and is not regulated by hazardous waste rules in 329 IAC 3.1 [PDF].

  • Industrial process waste includes, but is not limited to, wastes generated by electric utilities; chemical plants; steel mills; foundries; plastic and resin manufacturers; pulp and paper industries; oil and gas processing and refining, but not exploration and recovery; and other processes identified in 329 IAC 10-2-95 [PDF]. Foundry waste includes sand, slag, sludge, core waste, and dust fines. Electric utility waste—known as coal combustion residuals or coal ash—includes fly ash, bottom ash, boiler slag, and flue gas desulfurization byproducts.
  • Pollution control waste includes liquid, solid, semisolid, or gaseous wastes that are generated when contaminants are removed from air (e.g., baghouse dust), water (e.g., wastewater treatment sludge), or land (e.g., chemical spill cleanup waste). Pollution control waste is defined in 329 IAC 10-2-137 [PDF].

Industrial solid waste is often disposed at state permitted restricted waste sites, which are solid waste land disposal facilities designed and operated to accommodate specific types of waste as specified in 329 IAC 10-9-4 [PDF]. Industrial solid waste can also be disposed at stated permitted municipal and non-municipal solid waste landfills. IDEM’s Permitted Solid Waste Facilities List includes these types of permitted facilities.

Regulatory Requirements for Industrial Solid Waste

Industrial solid waste generators who intend to dispose of industrial solid waste at a restricted waste site must sample and analyze their waste to determine chemical concentration levels and if their waste is not hazardous waste. If the waste is determined to be nonhazardous waste, they must obtain a waste classification from IDEM to determine if the waste can be disposed of at a restricted waste site, unless the waste is disposed at a state permitted municipal or non-municipal solid waste landfill. Waste must be characterized at the point of generation of each waste stream to determine the waste classification type before disposing of it in a restricted waste site. Both laboratory analytical testing results and a generator's knowledge of the waste are used to ensure that it is not hazardous and to obtain a waste classification type. Based on the chemical constituent concentration, IDEM classifies the waste as Type I, Type II, Type III, or Type IV.

IDEM’s Waste Classification Guide for Solid Waste Facility Quarterly Reports [PDF] and Foundry Waste Classification Guidelines [PDF] provide information on solid waste types and guidelines on waste classification.

Restricted waste site criteria are specified in 329 IAC 10-9-4 [PDF]. IDEM regulates disposal of CCR in restricted waste sites and surface impoundments per rules in 329 IAC 10 [PDF]. The rules incorporate federal CCR disposal regulations at 40 CFR 257, Subpart D for surface impoundments. Specific requirements for CCR are covered on the Coal Combustion Residuals page.

Generators may also process their waste on-site or send off-site to a permitted solid waste processing facility for further processing (e.g., to solidify or consolidate waste prior to disposal). Generators should contact a permitted facility to determine whether they can accept the waste.

For Assistance

Please contact the Industrial Waste Compliance Section staff for assistance with industrial solid waste regulations or questions concerning compliance.


  • IDEM Fact Sheets (available on the IDEM Fact Sheets page)
    • Coal Combustion Residuals (Coal Ash)
    • Foundry Sand and Other Solid Waste as Structural Fill
  • IDEM Nonrule Policies (available on the IDEM Nonrule Policies page)
    • Storage of Type III Foundry Sands Prior To Legitimate Use (Waste-0027)
    • Use of Foundry Sands in Accordance with House Enrolled Act 1541 (Waste-0028)
    • Use of Foundry Sand in Land Application and as a Soil Amendment (Waste-0040)