Incineration is the controlled burning of substances in an enclosed area. Incinerators burn waste under the effect of temperature, retention time, air and other combustion factors. As the wastes are heated, they are converted from solids and liquids into gases. These gases pass through air pollution control devices (APCDs). Incinerators where waste materials are combusted (with or without energy recovery) accept most commercial and residential wastes, including household garbage, industrial waste, medical or infectious waste, and hazardous waste. Waste to energy facilities are known as resource recovery facilities. These facilities need to meet waste handling requirements and air emission standards. Even though, permitted under the solid waste processing facility rule (329 IAC 11), solid waste incinerators are considered to be final disposal facilities under Indiana Statue IC 13-11-2-82. Incinerators are also regulated by the Office of Air Quality.
Solid Waste Incinerators accept municipal waste, construction-demolition debris, and other non-municipal wastes that are typical of a solid waste collector. Solid waste incinerators that accept offsite waste need a solid waste processing facility permit from OLQ. Residues from a solid waste incinerator must be disposed of as solid waste as required by 329 IAC 10. All solid waste incinerators, except onsite incinerators need to report their data quarterly, and onsite incinerators need to report their data annually.
Infectious waste incinerators accept waste defined by the Department of Health rules (410 IAC 1-3) as infectious that are determined to be non-hazardous waste. Some infectious waste contaminated pharmaceuticals may be listed as hazardous waste, and therefore, need to be handled as hazardous waste. These incinerators may also accept certain non-infectious waste that are mixed in with infectious waste. Infectious waste incinerators that accept offsite waste need a solid waste processing facility permit from OLQ. Residue from an infectious waste incinerator may be disposed as solid waste according to rule 329 IAC 10. Currently, there are no commercial infectious waste incinerators in Indiana. All infectious waste incinerators, except onsite incinerators need to report their data quarterly, and onsite incinerators need to report their data annually.
Hazardous waste incinerators are regulated under 329 IAC 3.1 referencing 40 CFR Subpart O. According to the hazardous waste rule an incinerator is any enclosed device that uses controlled flame for combustion. This includes rotary kilns, liquid injectors, controlled air, fluidized bed, infrared, and plasma arc incinerators. Incinerators that process either onsite or offsite waste need to have a hazardous waste permit as a treatment, storage and disposal facility (TSDF). These facilities must comply with all the reporting requirements of a TSDF. Residues from these incinerators must be disposed as hazardous waste. Currently, there are no commercial hazardous waste incinerators in Indiana.