Definitions Used by the Lead Program
Abatement– any measure or set of measures designed to permanently eliminate lead-based paint hazards. The four types of abatement methods are removal, enclosure, encapsulation, and replacement. Abatement can only be conducted by a licensed abatement contractor. Rehabilitation and renovation projects are not considered to be abatement, unless the purpose of the project is to eliminate lead hazards. See 410 IAC 32-1-2.
Capillary Blood Lead Test - a blood lead test for which the blood sample is drawn using a finger lance to break the skin, followed by (1) drawing the blood from the cut into a capillary tube or other collection device, or (2) placing drops of blood onto a piece of filter paper.
Child-occupied facility - a building or portion of a building that was constructed prior to January 1, 1978; does not qualify as target housing; and is visited regularly by a child who is six (6) years of age or younger. See 410 IAC 32-1-9.
Clearance Examination- an activity conducted for the purpose of establishing proper completion of interim controls of lead hazards. A clearance examination can be conducted by a licensed risk assessor, lead inspector or clearance examiner. The clearance examination includes a visual examination of the completed work and additional dust samples to be tested for lead. See 410 IAC 32-1-10 and 410 IAC 29-1-8.
Clearance Examiner– a person trained by an approved training course provider and licensed to perform clearance examinations. See 410 IAC 32-1-11.
Component (Building Component)- means a specific design or structural element or fixture of a building that is distinguished from each other by form, function, and location. e.g. ceilings, walls chair rails, doors and door trim, molding, windows, window casings, floors.
De minimis Levels– the following levels which are used to determine whether deteriorated paint is a hazard that must be addressed:
- 20 square feet (2 square meters) on exterior surfaces
- 2 square feet (0.2 square meters) in any one interior room or space; or
- 10 percent of the total surface area on an interior or exterior type of component with a small surface area. e.g. window sills, baseboards, and trim.
Deteriorated paint- any interior or exterior paint or other coating that is cracking, chipping, peeling, or chalking; or any paint or coating that is otherwise damaged or separated from the surface to which it was applied. See 410 IAC 32-1-23.
Blood Lead Level (BLL) - the concentration of lead in a sample of blood usually expressed in micrograms per deciliter (µg/dL). An Elevated Blood Lead Level (EBLL) is where the amount of lead is ten micrograms of lead or more per deciliter of blood (≥10µg/dL). A Confirmed Elevated Blood Lead Level (CEBLL) is where the elevated level has been confirmed by an venous test or a second capillary test.
Encapsulation- an abatement method in which a lead-painted surface is coated with a special liquid paint that hardens and prevents lead dust from being released.
Enclosure- an abatement method in which a lead-painted surface is covered with paneling, wallboard, or other approved material to prevent lead dust from being released.
Friction surface – an interior or exterior surface that is subject to abrasion or friction as it operates. e.g. window slides. Lead dust is likely to occur around such surfaces.
HEPA (high efficiency particulate air) filter –a filter that can remove very small lead particles and prevent them from being redistributed into the air. HEPA filters are used on respirators and vacuum cleaners to prevent lead exposure. The filter is capable of filtering out particles of three-tenths (0.3) micron or greater from a body of air at ninety-nine and ninety-seven hundredths percent (99.97%) efficiency or greater.
Impact surface- means any interior or exterior surface that is subject to damage by repeated sudden force. i.e. door frames. Lead dust is likely to occur around such surfaces.
Indiana Childhood Lead Poisoning Prevention Program (ICLPPP) - the program, funded by the Centers for Disease Control, and administered by the Indiana State Department of Health, which is designed to eliminate the childhood disease of lead poisoning.
Indiana Lead and Healthy Homes Program (ILHHP) - the revised name of the program of the Indiana Department of Health which administers both the CDC funded childhood lead poisoning prevention program and the lead-based paint program funded by EPA. Phone (317) 233-1250.
IDOH – Indiana Department of Health. Website -http://www.in.gov/idoh/
IKE - Improving Kids Environment. A grassroots, childhood environmental health advocacy organization in Indiana. Website- http://www.ikecoalition.org/
I-LEAD – acronym for the Indiana Lead Environmental Assessment Database which is used by risk assessors to issue standard reports on lead hazards and remediation options.
Inspector (Lead Inspector) - a person who has been trained by an approved training course provider and licensed to conduct lead inspections. A licensed inspector also samples for the presence of lead in dust and soil for the purposes of abatement clearance testing. See 410 IAC 32-1-41.
Inspection (Lead Inspection) - a surface-by-surface investigation to determine the presence of lead-based paint and the provision of a report explaining the results of the investigation. See 410 IAC 32-1-42.
Interim Controls- a set of measures that temporarily reduce lead hazards. Such measures include specialized cleaning, repairs, maintenance, painting, and temporary containment. Interim controls must be periodically monitored to ensure they are still effective. See 410 IAC 32-1-43.
Lead– is a chemical element in the periodic table that has the symbol Pb (Latin: plumbum) and atomic number 82. A soft, heavy, toxic and malleable poor metal, lead is bluish white when freshly cut but tarnishes to dull gray when exposed to air. Lead is used in building construction, lead-acid batteries, bullets and shot, and is part of solder, pewter, and fusible alloys. (Wikipedia)
Lead-based Paint - any paint or other surface coating that contains lead in an amount equal to or exceeding defined levels of one (1) milligram per square centimeter; or five-tenths (0.5%) percent by weight. See 410 IAC 32-1-46.
Lead-contaminated Dust- means surface dust in residential dwellings or child-occupied facilities that contain an area or mass concentration of lead at, or in excess of, levels identified by the U.S. EPA. See TSCA Section 403, 15 U.S.C. 2683. See 410 IAC 32-1-48. Lead dust forms when lead-based paint is dry scraped, dry sanded, or heated (vapor). Dust also forms when painted surfaces bump or rub together. Lead chips and dust can get on surfaces and objects that people touch. Settled lead dust can re-enter the air when people vacuum, sweep, or walk through it.
Lead-contaminated Soil- means bare soil on residential real property and on the property of a child-occupied facility that contains lead at, or in excess of, levels identified by the U.S. EPA under TSCA, Section 403, 15 U.S.C. 2683. See 410 IAC 32-1-49.
Lead-free Housing- a property has been tested according to guidelines for the presence of lead-based paint in/on all painted components, in soil, and for lead dust and certified as being below the State and or Federal lead levels identified as hazardous at the time/date posted in the inspection/evaluation document of record.
Lead Hazard- Dangerous conditions or circumstances that cause lead exposure at levels that would result in adverse human health effects. Lead hazards could include deteriorated lead-based paint, lead-contaminated dust, and lead-contaminated soil. The term is defined this way for the purpose of Lead in Your Home: A Parent’s Reference Guide. See EPA TSCA 403 regulation.
Lead Hazard Control- activities to control or eliminate environmental lead hazards.
Lead-safe Housing - property which contains no lead hazards. I.e., no painted surfaces with deteriorated lead-based paint exceeding de minimis levels, no lead dust load exceeding acceptable levels. It does not mean all lead paint has been eliminated from a property, but that at the time of lead clearance inspection by a certified lead inspector the property was safe.
Lead Safe Work Practices (LSWP)- a collection of “best practices” techniques, methods and processes which minimize the amount of dust and debris created during remodeling and renovation, rehabilitation or repair of pre-1978 housing. LSWP help prevent the creation or exacerbation of lead-based paint hazards. (CDC). See 410 IAC 32-5-2. LSWP are required in Indiana for any work that is going to disturb more than the de minimis levels of lead-based paint on interior or exterior surfaces.
Loading (Lead Loading)- means the quantity of a specific substance present per unit of surface area. i.e. the amount of lead in micrograms contained in the dust collected from a certain surface area divided by the surface area in square feet or square meters equals the loading. See 410 IAC 32-1-52.
Paint Stabilization - Repairing any physical defect in the substrate of a painted surface that is causing paint deterioration, removing loose paint and other material from the surface to be treated and applying a new protective coating or paint. (CDC)
Paint-lead Hazard - means any one of the following: (1) Any lead-based paint on a friction surface that is subject to abrasion and where the lead dust levels on the nearest horizontal surface underneath the friction surface, including the interior window sill or floor, are equal to or greater than the allowable dust-lead hazard levels. (2) Any damaged or otherwise deteriorated lead-based paint on an impact surface that is caused by impact from a related building component including a door knob that knocks into a wall or a door that knocks against its door frame. (3) Any chewable lead-based painted surface on which there is evidence of teeth marks. (4) Any other deteriorated lead-based paint in any residential building or child-occupied facility or on the exterior of any residential building or child-occupied facility. See 410 IAC 32-1-57.
Pica - compulsive eating of nonnutritive substances such as dirt or flaking paint.
Priorities- when deciding which area to fix/clean first the priority must be to select the area where the child spends the most time. Eliminate any hazardous levels of lead dust by working through the dust removal/control options first. Next repair areas of deteriorated paint. After taking care of the paint, the dust-cleaning procedures must be followed. Finish with conducting any recommendations to eliminate bare soil.
Remediation- activities to eliminate the lead hazard through abatement or mitigate hazards through interim control. See 410 IAC 29-1-20,
Risk Assessment – means an on-site investigation to determine the existence, nature, severity, and location of lead-based paint hazards; and the provision of a report by the individual or the firm conducting the risk assessment explaining the results of the investigation and options for reducing lead-based paint hazards. See 410 IAC 32-1-69. It is further defined as an assessment of lead hazards from any structural source by a licensed risk assessor consistent with 326 IAC 23 to include the following: (1) A complete risk assessment including recommendations to mitigate identified lead hazards. (2) A written report to the family and the owner if the family does not own the home. (3) Education of the family and the owner on the following: (a) lead hazards in the home and (b) measures to protect children from further poisoning. 410 IAC 29-1-22
Risk Assessor- means a person who has been trained by an approved training course provider and licensed to conduct risk assessments, lead inspections, and clearance examinations. A risk assessor also samples for the presence of lead in dust and soil for the purposes of abatement clearance testing. See 410 IAC 32-1-70 and 410 IAC 29-1-23.
Reporting Requirements -local health officers shall ensure that addresses associated with children with elevated blood lead levels are reported. See 410 IAC 29-3-3.
Prevention and Remediation Authority - local health officers may: (1) enter upon and inspect private property, at proper times after due notice, in regard to the possible presence, source, and cause of lead poisoning and lead hazards. And (2) order what is reasonable and necessary to prevent lead poisoning or remediate lead hazards. Remediation shall be followed by dust clearance examination. See 410 IAC 29-4-1.
Severity– paint may be classified in the following conditions:
- Good: Any painted component that does not have any structural defects and paint defects.
- Fair:Any painted component that has minimal structural defects and the paint defects are below the de minimis levels.
- Poor: Any painted component that has minimal to major structural defects and paint defects above the de minimis levels.
Severity does not dictate priority.
Substrate - mans the surface on which paint, varnish, or other coating has been applied or may be applied. i.e. wood, plaster, metal, and drywall.
µg/dL- micrograms per deciliter; the measurement used to express how much lead is in a person’s blood. A lead poisoned child has only ten (10) µg of lead per dL of blood.
Venous blood lead test - a blood lead test for which the blood sample was drawn using the venipuncture method.
Wet Clean– is a lead safe work practice using a mixture of water and a household cleaner to remove lead dust.
Wet Plane- is a lead safe work practice of smoothing off a surface with a wood plane in which the surface is wet misted to minimize the amount dust created.
Wet Scrape– is a lead safe work practice used to remove loose or chipping paint where the paint is wet misted before being scraped to minimize the amount dust created.