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Indiana Historical Bureau

IHB > Historical Markers > Find a Marker > Find Historical Markers by County > Indiana Historical Markers by County > Indiana State Flag Indiana State Flag

Location: Intersection of E. Main Street and Indiana Street, Mooresville (Morgan County, Indiana)

Installed 2016 Indiana Historical Bureau, Indiana Daughters of the American Revolution, Celebrate Mooresville, and Citizens Bank

ID#: 55.2016.1

Visit Blogging Hoosier History to learn more about Paul Hadley and the Indiana State Flag.

Text

Side One

At centennial of statehood in 1916, Indiana lacked a unique state flag. The Indiana DAR spearheaded a movement to create a design by hosting a state competition. Mooresville watercolorist and John Herron Art Institute instructor Paul Hadley submitted the winning design.

Side Two

Indiana General Assembly adopted Hadley’s design in 1917, but it was not widely recognized by the public. Soldiers serving in WWII, Korean, and Vietnam requested flags as a symbol of home. Celebration of Indiana’s sesquicentennial in 1966 further established Hadley’s design as the official state flag and successfully encouraged its wider use and recognition.

Annotated Text

Side One

At centennial of statehood in 1916,[1] Indiana lacked a unique state flag.[2] The Indiana DAR spearheaded a movement to create a design by hosting a statewide competition.[3] Mooresville watercolorist[4] and John Herron Art Institute instructor[5] Paul Hadley submitted the winning design.[6]

Side Two                                                                       

Indiana General Assembly adopted Hadley’s design in 1917,[7] but it was not widely recognized by the public.[8] Soldiers serving in WWII, Korean, and Vietnam requested flags as a symbol of home.[9] Celebration of Indiana’s sesquicentennial in 1966 further established Hadley’s design as the official state flag and successfully encouraged its wider use and recognition.[10]

 


NOTE ON TERMINOLOGY: Although Hadley’s design was officially recognized as the state banner in 1917, sources from the period often referred to it interchangeably as the “flag” or “banner.”  These marker notes typically refer to the design as the banner until 1955, when the design officially became the state flag (see footnote 7 for more about these terminology changes).

All newspaper articles were published in Indiana.

[1] Harlow Lindley, ed., The Indiana Centennial 1916: A Record of the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of Indiana’s Admission to Statehood (Indianapolis: The Indiana Historical Commission, 1919), 23-25, 33-55, accessed Archive.org; Suellen M. Hoy, “Governor Samuel M. Ralston and Indiana's Centennial Celebration,” Indiana Magazine of History 71, iss. 3 (1975): 245-266, accessed Indiana Magazine of History Online, Indiana University ScholarWorks; “Indiana State Parks Centennial Celebration,” Indiana Department of Natural Resources, accessed http://www.in.gov/dnr/parklake/5901.htm.

In addition to procuring a state banner, Hoosiers celebrated Indiana’s centennial of statehood in 1916 with historical publications, pageants, monuments and the state parks system. The Indiana Historical Commission (now Indiana Historical Bureau), created in 1915, was responsible for stimulating interest in and facilitating centennial celebrations. The commission published documents about the state’s history, arranged for exhibits and pageants, and generally coordinated activities throughout the state. Hoosiers throughout Indiana embraced the centennial and tailored celebrations to their local communities, such as erecting a Johnny Appleseed monument in Fort Wayne and a Camp Morton marker in Indianapolis. Among the most enduring commemorative projects was the development of the state parks system; the first park, McCormick’s Creek, was established in the summer of 1916, followed by Turkey Run State Park.

For a comprehensive account of state and local centennial celebrations see Harlow Lindley’s 1919 The Indiana Centennial 1916: A Record of the Celebration of the One Hundredth Anniversary of Indiana’s Admission to Statehood.

[2] “An Act to Adopt the United States Flag as the Banner of the State of Indiana,” Approved March 9, 1901, Chapter 150 in Laws of the State of Indiana, Passed at the Sixty-Second Regular Session of the General Assembly, Begun on the Tenth Day of January A.D. 1901 (Indianapolis, Wm. B. Burford, Contractor for State Printing and Binding, 1901), 336, Indiana State Library (ISL) Clipping File, State Flag; “Indiana is Hunting for ‘Father’ or ‘Mother’ of Official State Flag, Has No Permanent Emblem of Its Own to Mark Energies of a Century,” Indianapolis News, March 11, 1916, 15, Indiana Historical Bureau (IHB) files; “Indiana State Banner Displayed by D.A.R.,” Indianapolis News, November, 8, 1917, 3, IHB files; “An Act to Amend Section 1 and the Title of an Act Entitled ‘An Act for Adopting a State Banner,’ Law Without Signature of Governor (1917),” Approved March 8, 1955, Chapter 146 in Laws of the State of Indiana, Passed at the Eighty-ninth Regular Session of the General Assembly, Begun on the Sixth Day of January, A.D. 1955 (Indianapolis, The Bookwalter Company, 1955), 289, accessed HeinOnline.

While the Indiana General Assembly approved an Act in 1901 making the United States flag the official state flag, Indiana lacked a flag that uniquely represented the Hoosier state. The Indiana Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) hosted a statewide competition in 1916 for the design of a representative state banner (See footnote 3 for more about the competition). The Indianapolis News reported in 1916 that the DAR chapter was careful not to infringe on the existing state flag, reporting that the group “is not proposing the creation or adoption of a state flag. There is no disposition to try to share the place of the one flag, but there is a feeling that it is wholly appropriate to adopt an individual standard or banner. Other states—all of them thoroughly patriotic and loyal—have done so.” Therefore, Paul Hadley’s design was referred to as the official state banner until 1955, when the Indiana General Assembly amended an Act, officially making it the state flag (see footnote 7).

[3] “Indiana State Banner,” The Indiana Teacher (n.d.): 9-10, ISL Clipping File, State Flag; “A Brief Review of the Twenty-Third Continental Congress,” Daughters of the American Revolution Magazine 44, no. 5 (May 1914): 277, 279, accessed GoogleBooks; Mary S. Carey, Chairman, “Report of State Flag Committee,” in Daughters of the American Revolution, Sixteenth Annual State Conference, n.d., 67-68, ISL Clipping File, State Flag;  “D.A.R. Delegates Name Richmond,” Indianapolis Star, October 22, 1915, 4, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “Indiana is Hunting for ‘Father’ or ‘Mother’ of Official State Flag, Has No Permanent Emblem of Its Own to Mark Energies of a Century,” Indianapolis News, March 11, 1916, 15, IHB files; “In the Centennial Spot Light: What Counties Are Doing In Arranging To Observe Events,” Jeffersonville Star, March 30, 1916, 5, accessed NewspaperArchive.com;  “Still Time for Some One to Submit New Ideas in State Flag Contest,” Indianapolis News, January 5, 1917, n.p., IHB files; “Indiana State Banner Displayed by D.A.R.,” Indianapolis News, November, 8, 1917, 3, IHB files; “The Indiana State Banner,” Year Book of the State of Indiana for the Year 1919 (Fort Wayne, Indiana: Fort Wayne Printing Company, 1920): 952, ISL Clipping File; “How the State Flag Was Selected for Indiana,” Brazil Indiana Times, February 9, 1925, n.p., ISL Clipping File, State Flag; Margaret Stephenson Moore, “Hoosiers Who Do Things,” Indianapolis Star, July 12, 1942, 5, IHB files; “The Indiana State Banner, Extension of Remarks of Hon. Homer E. Capehart of Indiana in the Senate of the United States, Friday, February 24, 1950,” in Congressional Record, Proceedings and Debates of the 81st Congress, Second Session, IHB files; History of the Daughters of the American Revolution in Indiana, Second Edition (Indiana Daughters of the American Revolution, October 1960), 4, ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts; “In the Centennial Spot Light: What Counties Are Doing In Arranging To Observe Events,” Jeffersonville  Star, March 30, 1916, 5, accessed NewspaperArchive.com;  Rachel Berenson Perry, “Paul Hadley: Artist and Designer of the Indiana Flag,” Traces of Indiana and Midwestern History (Winter 2003): 22, IHB files; Indiana Historical Bureau, “Emblems of the State of Indiana,” (n.d.): n.p., ISL Clipping File, State Flag.

According to the Indianapolis News and the 1919 Year Book of the State of Indiana, in 1914 Indiana DAR delegates Mary Stewart Carey, of Indianapolis, and Mrs. William Gaar, of Richmond, attended the 23rd Continental Congress of the National Society, DAR in Washington, D.C. (Mrs. Gaar’s first name is likely Julia, who was affiliated with the Richmond DAR chapter, but could not be confirmed by IHB staff; 1942 Indiana Today and 1941 Women of Indiana). At the conference they observed that the Memorial Continental Hall was decorated with state flags, but that Indiana was one of few states missing representation. The women returned to Indiana with the goal of obtaining a state banner that was representative and unique to Indiana, particularly in light of Indiana’s upcoming centennial of statehood. The Indianapolis News reported on March 11, 1916 that:

All of the original thirteen states, however, have banners. Some of the other thirty-five states have adopted such emblems. The Indiana Daughters of the American Revolution, and some other patriotic organizations, have decided that it is wholly suitable, and very desirable that the Indiana centennial observance should be lastingly marked by the creation and adoption of an Indiana state banner.

The Indiana DAR established a State Flag Committee, headed by Carey, and hosted a public competition for the design of a state banner. The committee offered a $100 award for the winning entry and received over 200 submissions from Hoosier men and women, as well as applicants from other states. Carey contended in a report of the State Flag Committee “It is difficult to find a motive to be expressed on our banner, as Indiana has no mountain peak, no great lake or river exclusively its own—but it is possible to find some symbol expressive of its high character and noble history.”

According to the 1919 Year Book of the State of Indiana, the banner committee worked with state and patriotic organizations to select three winning designs, which were submitted to the State Adjutant General. Military officials then judged the designs and concurred with the committee regarding the winning entry, selecting Hadley’s submission to represent Indiana. In 1917, the Indiana General Assembly adopted Hadley’s design as the official state banner (see footnote 7). For more about the competition and Hadley’s entry, see footnote 6.

[4] “Paul Hadley,” Indianapolis Monthly Meeting of Friends Church, Membership and Transfer Record, 1883, p.122, Earlham College, Indiana Year Meeting Minutes Collection, accessed AncestryLibrary.com; “Paragraphs of the Day,” Indianapolis News, June 10, 1901, 12, accessed Hoosier State Chronicles; “Paul Hadley Wins Laurels,” Indianapolis Journal, June 7, 1902, 10, accessed Hoosier State Chronicles; “Paul Hadley,” U.S. Passport Applications, 1795-1925, 366, National Archives and Records Administration, NARA Series: Passport Applications, January 2, 1906-March 31, 1925, Roll 1700, accessed AncestryLibrary.com; “Indiana Artists Show Varied Work,” Indianapolis Star, May 7, 1911, n.p., accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “State Fair Gates Open Tomorrow,” Indianapolis Star, September 6, 1914, 12, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; Lucille Morehouse, “First  Exhibition of Local Artist Club is Opened,” Indianapolis Star, November 8, 1917, 7, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “Canvass [sic] by Otto Stark,” Indianapolis Star, December 4, 1921, 8, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “Hadley Painting on Display,” Indianapolis Sunday Star, December 18, 1921, n.p., accessed NewspaperArchive.com; Lucille Morehouse, “State Fair Proves Factor in Local Art Development,” Indianapolis Star, September 5, 1922, n.p., accessed NewspaperArchive.com; John Herron Art Institute, “Lenders Since January First,” The Bulletin of the Art Association of Indianapolis Indiana 10, no. 9 (December 1923): 50, ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts; John Herron Art Institute, “Catalogue, Oil Paintings,” The Bulletin of the Art Association of Indianapolis Indiana 13, no. 2 (March 1926): 15, ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts; John Herron Art Institute, “Water Colors,” The Bulletin of the Art Association of Indianapolis, Indiana 16, no. 6 (October-November, 1929): n.p., ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts; The 18th Annual Hoosier Salon, Under the Auspices of the Hoosier Salon Patrons Association, January 19 through January 31, 1942, n.p., ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts; Henry Wood, “Hoosier Artist—Modest in Success,” Indianapolis Star Magazine, April 29, 1951, 34, ISL microfilm; David Mannweiler, “Hadley’s The Hero,” Indianapolis News, June 26, 1976, 11, IHB files; David J. Bodenhamer and Robert G. Barrows, eds., The Encyclopedia of Indianapolis (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1994), 653-654; Judith Vale Newton and Carol Weiss,  A Grand Tradition: The Art and Artists of the Hoosier Salon, 1925-1990 (Indianapolis: Hoosier Salon Patrons Association, 1993), 219-220; Perry, 25, 27-29.

According to Quaker meeting records and his U.S. passport application, Paul Hadley was born August 5, 1880 in Indianapolis and later lived in Mooresville, Indiana. Perry stated that Hadley initially attended Indianapolis High School (later renamed Shortridge High School), but transferred to Manual Training High School to study under “Hoosier Group” artist Otto Stark. According to Perry and Indianapolis newspapers, in the fall of 1900 he enrolled in the Pennsylvania Museum and Industrial School of Arts in Philadelphia and studied interior decorating for two years, afterwards working as an interior decorator in Chicago.

Hadley returned to Mooresville and primarily painted local landscapes via watercolors, depicting subjects such as cabins, streams, woods, outhouses, farmhouses and shrubbery. Perry reported that in 1921 Hadley’s studio in the Union Trust building in Indianapolis had become “well known among art enthusiasts.” The Indianapolis Star noted in December of that year that Hadley traveled through Italy, Switzerland, France, England and Belgium, painting water colors he exhibited at the Woman’s Department Club in Indianapolis. The Star article described the water colors:

Of charming quality and lovely color, a veritable delight as to design and pattern, likewise expressive of poetic feeling and an imaginative faculty that bespeaks the true artist, these pictures form an important series in the beautiful work coming from Mr. Hadley’s brush within the last few years that is indeed distinctive.

Hadley gained repute for his watercolors and frequently exhibited in Indianapolis. Perry noted that Hadley participated in Indiana Artist Club exhibitions and belonged to the prestigious Portfolio Club. The Indianapolis Star Magazine and a Hoosier Salon booklet reported that Hadley received awards for his watercolors at the annual Hoosier Art Salon and Indiana State Fair. A 1922 Indianapolis Star article asserted that the winning Indiana State Fair pieces conveyed “freshness of outlook, evidence of fine color sense and a feeling for harmony and balance. His creative ability and versatility are evident in the handling of various subjects in different mediums.” That same year Hadley was invited to teach at the John Herron Art Institute, where Art Association of Indianapolis bulletins show he frequently exhibited watercolors (see footnote 5 for more information about Hadley teaching). According to Perry, in the 1940s Hadley exhibited at Indianapolis galleries, such as the H. Lieber Gallery and the Mary Q. Burnet Gallery of Women’s Department Club.

An Indianapolis Star Magazine article, published in 1951, reported on the prevalence of his work, stating that “there is a Hadley water color in most of the Indianapolis high schools, and a large one is in the John Herron Art Institute.”  The article noted that Hadley’s “products are in demand everywhere. Many established artists regard him as a great teacher, partially responsible for their own successes. He is regarded as one of the best water color technicians of the Middle West.” David Mannweiler noted similarly in his 1976 Indianapolis News article that Hadley is regarded as “dean of Hoosier watercolor painters.” Some of Hadley’s watercolors can be viewed through the Indianapolis Art Museum website.

[5] “Paul Hadley Wins Two Prizes With Fountain Picture,” Indianapolis Star, September 11, 1922, n.p., accessed NewspaperArchive.com; Indianapolis Star, November 5, 1922, 7, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; Lucille E. Morehouse, “Students’ Skill Shown in Herron Exhibition,” Indianapolis Star, July 17, 1923, 6, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; "Changes at Herron Art School, Indianapolis," The American Magazine of Art 26, no. 9 (September 1933): 432-433, accessed JSTOR.org; John Herron Art Institute, “The Museum,” The Bulletin of the Art Association of Indianapolis Indiana 22, no. 1 (February 1935): n.p., ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts; John Herron Art Institute, The Bulletin of The Art Association of Indianapolis, Indiana 22, no. 3 (December 1935): n.p., ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts; John Herron Art Institute, The Bulletin of The Art Association of Indianapolis, Indiana 23, no. 4 (December 1936): n.p., ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts; John Herron Art Institute, The Bulletin of The Art Association of Indianapolis, Indiana 24, no. 1 (May 1937): n.p., ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts; Henry Wood, “Hoosier Artist—Modest in Success,” Indianapolis Star Magazine, April 29, 1951, 34, ISL microfilm; Perry, 25-27; Harriet G. Warkel, Martin F. Krause, and S. L. Berry, The Herron Chronicle (Bloomington and Indianapolis: Herron School of Art IUPUI and Indiana Press, 2003), 241.

According to Perry, Hadley was invited to join the faculty of the John Herron Art Institute in the fall of 1922 as an interior decorating instructor. The Indianapolis Star reported in November of that year that he taught topics relating to “color design and arrangement of furniture in home interiors.”

In 1929, Hadley’s title was changed from instructor of interior design to water-color instructor. According to The American Magazine of Art, a change in school administration in 1933 led to the dismissal of Hadley along with seven other professors, including “dean of Indiana painters” William Forsyth. According to Perry, Hadley was transferred to the Art Institute’s museum in 1932, working as assistant curator.

[6] Mary S. Carey, Chairman, “Report of State Flag Committee,” Daughters of the American Revolution, Sixteenth Annual State Conference, n.d., 68, ISL Clipping File, State Flag; “Indiana is Hunting for ‘Father’ or ‘Mother’ of Official State Flag, Has No Permanent Emblem of Its Own to Mark Energies of a Century,” Indianapolis News, March 11, 1916, 15, IHB files; “An Act for Adopting a State Banner, Law Without Signature of Governor,” Chapter 114, in Laws of the State of Indiana, Passed at the Seventieth Regular Session of the General Assembly, Begun on the Fourth Day of January, A.D. 1917 (Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne Printing Company, 1917): 346-347, accessed HeinOnline; “Still Time for Some One to Submit New Ideas in State Flag Contest,” Indianapolis News, January 5, 1917, n.p., IHB files; “Indiana’s State Flag,” Attica Ledger, May 25, 1917, 1, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “Indiana State Banner Displayed by D.A.R.,” Indianapolis News, November, 8, 1917, 3, IHB files; “The Indiana State Banner,” Year Book of the State of Indiana for the Year 1919 (Fort Wayne, Indiana: Fort Wayne Printing Company, 1920): 952-953, ISL Clipping File, State Flag; Mindwell Crampton Wilson, “Notes of Indiana D.A.R.,” Indianapolis Star, August 22, 1921, 1, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “Indiana’s 144th Birthday,” Indianapolis Star Magazine, December 4, 1960, 46, IHB files; History of the Daughters of the American Revolution in Indiana, Second Edition (Indiana Daughters of the American Revolution, October 1960), 4, ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts; David Mannweiler, “Hadley’s The Hero,” Indianapolis News, June 26, 1976, 11, IHB files.

As the banner competition progressed, Chairman of the State Flag Committee Mary S. Carey urged contestants to submit simpler designs that could be “recognized at a distance, and simple enough to be printed on a small flag or stamped on a button.” She encouraged applicants to design banners “striking in symbolism” and utilize colors differing from those of the U.S. flag. An Indianapolis News article reported that designs should be “original, direct, bold and simple.” Hadley’s submission met these suggestions, featuring a gold torch representing liberty atop a blue background. Radiating from the torch were thirteen stars on the outer circle to represent the thirteen original states, five stars in the inner circle to represent the states admitted before Indiana, and a larger star symbolizing the State of Indiana.  When the General Assembly of Indiana adopted Hadley’s design as the official state banner in 1917 they required the word “Indiana” be added above the star representing the state.

image:http://www.darindiana.org/in/stateflag.html

The Year Book of the State of Indiana contended that the adoption of the banner was “fittingly regarded as a part of the work of the Centennial celebration of the State.” According to David Mannweiler’s 1976 Indianapolis News article, Hadley’s additional submissions won prizes for first, second, third and all honorable mention awards. Mannweiler noted that one of the entries included a tulip tree leaf and blossom and another featured an ear of corn with an Indian arrowhead. IHB staff was unable to locate primary sources confirming Hadley’s other submissions.

[7] “An Act for Adopting a State Banner, Law Without Signature of Governor,” Chapter 114, in Laws of the State of Indiana, Passed at the Seventieth Regular Session of the General Assembly, Begun on the Fourth Day of January, A.D. 1917 (Fort Wayne, Fort Wayne Printing Company, 1917): 346-347, accessed HeinOnline; “Indiana’s State Flag,” Attica Ledger, May 25, 1917, 1, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “State Flag,” Year Book of the State of Indiana for the Year 1917 (Indianapolis: Wm. B. Burford, 1918): 824, ISL Clipping File, State Flag; “The Indiana State Banner,” Year Book of the State of Indiana for the Year 1919 (Fort Wayne, Indiana: Fort Wayne Printing Company, 1920): 952, ISL Clipping File, State Flag; “The Indiana State Banner, Extension of Remarks of Hon. Homer E. Capehart of Indiana in the Senate of the United States, Friday, February 24, 1950,” in Congressional Record, Proceedings and Debates of the 81st Congress, Second Session, IHB files; “An Act to Amend Section 1 and the Title of an Act Entitled ‘An Act for Adopting a State Banner,’ Law Without Signature of Governor (1917),” Approved March 8, 1955, Chapter 146 in Laws of the State of Indiana, Passed at the Eighty-ninth Regular Session of the General Assembly, Begun on the Sixth Day of January, A.D. 1955 (Indianapolis, The Bookwalter Company, 1955): 289, accessed HeinOnline; History of the Daughters of the American Revolution in Indiana, Second Edition (Indiana Daughters of the American Revolution, October 1960): 4, ISL Rare Books and Manuscripts.

After Hadley’s design was selected, it was submitted to the Indiana General Assembly in 1917 for approval and adoption as Indiana’s official state banner. However, the submission was met with some apathy, as the Attica Ledger noted in 1917 that “there were several of the lawmakers that were not enthusiastic over the proposition for a state flag and Gov. Goodrich himself thought so little of the proposition that he allowed it to become a law without his signature.”

The Act stated that the banner “shall be regulation, in addition to the American flag, with all of the militia forces of the State of Indiana, and in all public functions in which the state may or shall officially appear.” The U.S. flag remained Indiana’s official state flag until 1955, when the General Assembly approved an Act making Hadley’s design the state flag of Indiana.

[8] “Indiana’s State Flag,” Attica Ledger, May 25, 1917, 1, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “Flag for Battleship,” Indianapolis News, December 17, 1917, 11, IHB files; “The Indiana Flag,” Indianapolis Star, October 7, 1920, 6, ISL microfilm; “The Indiana Banner,” Indianapolis News, November 26, 1920, 6, IHB files; “Last Touches Put to Indiana Flag by Hoosier Betsy Rosses,” Indianapolis News, April 29, 1931, 5, ISL microfilm; “The Indiana Banner,” Indianapolis News, December 13, 1935, IHB files; Perry, 22.

Despite Indiana’s centennial celebration and legislation adopting Hadley’s design as the state banner, Hoosiers remained largely unaware of the state emblem. An Attica Ledger article suggested in 1917 that most readers would not recognize the banner if they passed it. The Indianapolis News reported at the end of 1917 that the banner had yet to be publicly displayed (having only been exhibited at a DAR convention) until Carey presented it to the crew of the U.S.S. Indiana. The News article reported that “A feeling of state pride led Mrs. Carey to give the banner to the Indianapolis branch of the Navy League to be sent immediately to the battleship.”

Perry noted that after this gesture the banner “virtually disappeared from public consciousness for several years.” Indianapolis newspapers reported in 1920 that the public remained generally unaware of the banner’s existence. The Indianapolis News asserted that “probably not one person in a thousand knows what the state flag is.” Similarly, an Indianapolis Star article lamented the banner’s lack of visibility, stating:

And yet, in the four years that have elapsed since the centennial celebration, this flag has never been displayed at a public gathering with the exception of the celebration of the centennial of Indiana university, and then, through the instrumentality of a pageant master from another state. It was not seen during the Indianapolis centennial celebration, nor during the recent encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic . . . The flag is not to be found in the Statehouse . . . some one in authority should see that this flag should be manufactured and should be displayed on all suitable occasions together with the flag of the United States.

In 1931, the Indianapolis News reported that members of the Mooresville Delta Iota Chapter of Tri Kappa made state banners to sell through their sorority. Member M.E. Carlisle stated “‘We have felt that the state banner has not been receiving the proper attention in the state’” and that “‘many people do not know that we have one and some that do would not recognize it if they saw it. Our idea is to acquaint the state with its banner.’” The newspaper noted in 1935 that “few of the state banners are in existence.”

Indiana’s state banner increased in popularity with America’s involvement in war from the 1940s to the 1960s. See footnote 9 about flags being sent overseas at the request of U.S. soldiers.

[9] Margaret Stephenson Moore, “Hoosiers Who Do Things,” Indianapolis Star, July 12, 1942, 5, IHB files; “State Flag Soon to Hang in Japan,” Indianapolis News, July 30, 1951, 15, ISL microfilm; “Indiana’s Flag Flies In Korea,” Indianapolis Star, November 23, 1951, 10, ISL Clipping File, State Flag; “2 State Flags En Route to Front,” Indianapolis Times, March 25, 1952, 8, ISL microfilm; Dave Butler, “Hoosier Flew State Flag,” Indianapolis News, November 18, 1967, 2, ISL Clipping File, State Flag.

While Hadley’s design was not widely displayed after the DAR competition, American soldiers serving overseas in World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War requested the banner as a symbol of home and solidarity. The Indianapolis Star reported in 1942 that

When Hoosier soldiers gather in USO headquarters or other recreation spots, the Indiana flag of blue and gold is a symbol of home, displayed much more widely now than it was during World War No. 1. Viewing the banner prompts handclasps which are the beginning of friendships, stories of people at home, and singing of ‘On the Banks of the Wabash.’

The banner was sent to Hoosier soldier Pfc. Edman R. Camomile, serving in the Korean War, who flew it from a hilltop on the war front. He stated “‘It is the most wonderful thing that could happen to me. Just knowing the United States flag and all 48 state flags are flying high over different areas of Korea shows that they all stand for peace to all mankind.’” The Indianapolis News noted July 1951 that the Indiana Secretary of State planned to send his flag to the Army mess hall of Cpl. Robert G. Long, stationed in Japan. Oklahoma and Michigan colleagues displayed their state flags and Long wanted Indiana’s to “‘hang just as high as the others.’” According to the News, an unofficial query showed that the state did not mass produce the flag and that they were made only when ordered, speaking to the continuing lack of demand for the emblem.

The newspaper later reported that Marine Cpl. Tony Fisher, fighting in the Vietnam War, requested an Indiana flag. He flew it over his gun pit, returning it “tattered and torn and perhaps bullet nicked.” Despite increased awareness of the banner due to military conflicts and the commemoration of Indiana’s sesquicentennial in 1966, Fisher stated “there are not many Indiana flags seen in Vietnam, compared with other states.” See footnote 11 to learn how observance of the sesquicentennial led to the widespread display and recognition of the flag.

[10] “H.C.R. 18,” Approved February 24, 1965, Chapter 447 in Laws of the State of Indiana, Passed at the Ninety-Fourth Regular Session of the General Assembly, 1965 (Indianapolis, Central Publishing Company, 1965), 1417-1418, accessed HeinOnline; “S.C.R. 21,” Approved March 2, 1965, Chapter 451 in Laws of the State of Indiana, Passed at the Ninety-Fourth Regular Session of the General Assembly, 1965 (Indianapolis, Central Publishing Company, 1965), 1420, accessed HeinOnline; John S. Anderson (Major General, Indiana Army National Guard) to John Hatchett (Commissioner, Department of Administration), Re: Procurement of Flags, November 19, 1965, ISL Clipping File, State Flag; “Local Citizens Ask to Display Flags,” Carthage Citizen, April 15, 1966, front page, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; Pharos-Tribune News Staff, “Pharos Tribune Flashes,” Logansport Pharos-Tribune, April 18, 1966, n.p., accessed NewspaperArchive; “County ‘Sesqui’ Opens with Dinner Tuesday,” Delphi Journal, April 21, 1966, front page, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “Legionnaires Sponsor Sale of State Flags,” Terre Haute Star, May 26, 1966, 29, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; Wayne Guthrie, “What Prompted Our Official State Flag?” Indianapolis News, June 2, 1966, 13, ISL Clipping File, State Flag; “State Fair Presents Salute to Sesquicentennial,” Tipton Tribune, August 29, 1966, 3, accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “Reception Held for Cunningham School Faculty,” Anderson Herald, September 21, 1966, n.p., accessed NewspaperArchive.com; “State Floats Winners of Bowl Honors,” Anderson Herald Bulletin, January 3, 1967, 6, accessed NewspaperArchive.com.

Although Indiana’s state flag helped commemorate Indiana’s centennial of statehood in 1916, it was not routinely displayed or recognized by the public for decades. After a concerted effort by the Indiana legislature, encouraging the widespread exhibition of the flag for the sesquicentennial, many Hoosiers recognized Hadley’s design by 1966. On February 24, 1965, the Indiana House of Representatives approved a resolution stating observance of the sesquicentennial “should include widespread display of the State Flag of Indiana throughout the State.” The resolution directed state-funded institutions and schools to purchase and display the flag. Additionally, the Indiana Senate approved a resolution on March 2, 1965 honoring Hadley for his design, stating “in connection with the observation of the Sesquicentennial Celebration in 1966, [the Senate] does hereby honor and commend Mr. Paul Hadley, an octogenarian citizen of the State of Indiana, for his brilliant and perceptive work in designing the official flag of the State of Indiana.”

A November 1965 memo from the Indiana Army National Guard to the Indiana Department of Administration reflected the resolutions, stating that the Adjutant General’s Office “provides U.S. and State of Indiana flags to all armories and ANG fields within the State as our policy is to habitually fly both flags.” The memo continued that purchasing adjustments would be made “in view of increased demands for the Sesquicentennial Year by all State Institutions and especially by our Military Department each year.”

According to newspaper articles from the period, the measures were largely successful in bringing awareness to the flag. A June 2, 1966 Indianapolis News article reported “almost any school child can recite the significance of the present official flag” and that “today it is known by all public-spirited Hoosiers of all ages.” Carthage and Logansport newspapers reported that American Legion officials encouraged readers to display the U.S. and state flag in honor of the sesquicentennial. The Delphi  Journal noted that the state flag, purchased by the “Sesqui” group, was on display and would be exhibited at the REMC auditorium. The Tipton Tribune informed readers that the Sesquicentennial Queen would be delivering a tribute to Hadley and that the Hendricks County Sesquicentennial Queen wrote a tribute to the flag. The Anderson Herald reported that the Cunningham PTA reception theme was the Sesquicentennial, and included blue and gold decorations, along with a cake decorated with Hadley’s design. The anniversary of statehood was commemorated on a national scale at the Tournament of Roses Parade in Pasadena, California with a float depicting the state flag and other symbols of Indiana.

Sesquicentennial commemorations brought Hadley’s design more fully into the public consciousness. The flag continued to be used publicly to represent and celebrate the Hoosier state, such as its display at the 2015 Statehood Day, an event that kicked off Indiana’s bicentennial celebration.

Keywords

Arts and Culture, Government