*Rate per 100,000 population based on the U.S. Census Bureau’s population data as of July 1, 2002
Salmonellosis is a bacterial disease usually transmitted through raw or undercooked foods of animal origin or foods cross-contaminated by animal products or feces. It can also be transmitted person to person. Common reservoirs include poultry; swine; cattle; reptiles, such as turtles, snakes, and lizards; and wild birds, such as ducks and geese.
In 2002, the incidence of salmonellosis in Indiana increased slightly from 2001, with 599 cases reported, or 9.7 cases per 100,000 population. This incidence is below the five-year average of 615 cases that occurred during 1998-2002 (Figure 1). The incidence was greatest during the summer months (Figure 2). As shown in Figure 3, age-specific rates were greatest for infants under the age of 1 year (72.9), followed by preschoolers aged 1-4 years (19.1), and adults aged 80 years or older (9.5). Females (10.3) were slightly more likely to be reported with Salmonella infection than males (9.1), and blacks (8.2) were slightly more likely to be reported than whites (7.0) or other races (5.2).
The incidence rates were highest among the following counties reporting five or more cases:
Newton (41.8), Jay (27.7), Grant (22.2), Ripley (18.2), and Adams and Steuben (17.9). Figure 4 shows Indiana counties reporting five or more cases. There were no outbreaks of salmonellosis reported in Indiana in 2002.
There are over 3,000 different Salmonella serotypes that differ in somatic and flagellar antigens. The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) requests that clinical laboratories submit all positive Salmonella isolates to the ISDH Laboratories for free confirmation and serotyping. During 2002, serotypes were determined for approximately 98 percent of the 599 confirmed cases identified. Of the 589 Salmonella isolates of known serotype, 101 (17%) were enteritidis, 87 (15%) were typhimurium, 57 (10%) were newport, 47 (8%) were heidelberg, 30 (5%) were subspecies
I 4,5:i:- (formerly java), and the remaining 267 (45%) were other serotypes.