Assessments are utilized to determine specific criminal risk factors and needs. They may be used by courts, probation, community corrections, institutional facilities, and can be used to assist with determining pre-trial release, sentencing, supervision intensity, and treatment needed (i.e. cognitive behavioral, mental health, and substance abuse.)
“Assess Actuarial Risk/Needs” is the first of the 8 Principles of Effective Intervention (from National Institute of Corrections) and it provides a foundation for the other principles to build from.
- Risk Assessments
Indiana Risk Assessment System (IRAS) - Per Indiana Office of Court Services’ (IOCS) policy, these instruments are “used at specific points in the criminal justice process to identify an offender’s risk to reoffend and criminogenic needs.” IRAS Policies may be found here: https://www.in.gov/judiciary/iocs/files/prob-risk-iras-2012.pdf
Pre-Trial Assessment Tool (PAT) - Per IOCS policy, “This tool is designed to assess an offender’s risk for failure to appear and risk to reoffend while on pre-trial supervision.”
Community Supervision Screener (CSST) - Per IOCS policy, “This tool is designed to quickly identify low-risk offenders and determine if a full risk assessment should be completed.”
Community Supervision Tool (CST) - Per IOCS policy, “This tool is designed to assess an offender’s risk to reoffend and identify criminogenic needs to assist in making decisions regarding community supervision.”
Community Supervision Static Tool (ST) – Per IOCS policy, “This tool is designed to assess an offender’s risk to reoffend based solely on static factors.
Indiana Youth Assessment System (IYAS) - Per Indiana Office of Court Services’ (IOCS) policy, these instruments are “used at specific points in the juvenile justice process to identify a youth’s risk to reoffend and criminogenic needs.” IRAS Policies may be found here: https://www.in.gov/judiciary/iocs/files/prob-risk-iyas-2011.pdf
Diversion Tool - Per IOCS policy, “It is a best practice to complete this tool at initial contact for the instant offense to assist in making diversion decisions.”
Detention Tool – Per IOCS policy, “It is best practice to complete this tool prior to detention to assist in making hold/release decisions. This tool can also assist in making decisions regarding releases from detention.”
Disposition Screener – Per IOCS policy, “This tool is designed to quickly identify low-risk youth and determine if a full risk assessment should be completed.”
Disposition Tool – Per IOCS policy, “This tool is designed to assess a youth’s risk to reoffend and identify criminogenic needs to assist in making decisions regarding post-adjudication supervision.”
- Specialty Risk Assessments
Static 99 and Static 99R - Used for adult male sexual offenders who are at least 18 year of age at time of release to the community.
Ontario Domestic Assault Risk Assessment (ODARA) - “A procedure to identify the risk of future assaults against intimate partners.”
The Colorado Sex Offender Risk Scale (SORS) – A scale calibrated to measure risk ratios at 12 and 30 months.
The Rapid Risk Assessment for Sexual Offense Recidivism (RRARSOR) – A scale that assesses levels of risk for sexual recidivism for convicted sexual offenders.
Impaired Driver Assessment (IDA) - A brief screening of conditions to discern the most appropriate level of DWI/AOD education and treatment during community supervision and intervention services.
- Needs Assessments
Criminal Attitudes & Behavioral Patterns
Criminal Cognition Scale (CCS) - Assessment administered to determine, Notions of Entitlement; Failure to Accept Responsibility; Short-Term Orientation; Insensitivity to Impact of Crime; and Negative Attitudes toward Authority.
Measures of Criminal Attitudes and Associates (MCAA) - This assessment evaluates criminal friends as well as attitude scales including anti-social intent, associates, entitlement, and violence.
Texas Christian University – Criminal Thinking Scale (TCU-CTS)- Used to measure Entitlement, Justification, Power Orientation, Cold Heartedness, Criminal Rationalization, and Personal Irresponsibility.
Pride in Delinquency (PID) – A self-report instrument to measure an individual’s degree of comfort (pride vs. shame) for engaging in certain criminal behaviors.
How I Think (HIT) – Measures the self-serving cognitive distortions/ thinking errors in categories of Self-Centered, Blaming Others, Minimizing/Mislabeling, and Assuming the Worst.
Parenting Stress Index – Evaluates the stress in the parent-child system based on parent and child characteristics and situational/demographic life stress.
Dyadic Adjustment Scale – Measures romantic relationship quality.
Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale (FACES IV) – “Evaluates the adaptability and cohesion dimensions in family interactions”.
Family Environment Scale – Examines each family member’s perceptions of the family.
- Substance Use
Addiction Severity Index (ASI) - Administered to individuals with potential substance abuse addictions where medical status, employment and support, drug use, alcohol use, legal status, family/social status, and psychiatric status are all addressed.
Substance Abuse Subtle Screening Inventory (SASSI) - Used to identify individuals who have a high probability of possessing a substance disorder.
Form 90 – A multi-component assessment used as a method to reconstruct alcohol and drug use over the past 90 days by measuring general health care utilization and residential history
CAGE – Used to identify alcohol problems from all stages of a lifetime
Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) – Screens for lifetime alcohol-related problems and alcoholism
Drug Abuse Screening Test (DAST) – A screening instrument for the abuse of drugs other than alcohol
Assessment for Responsivity Factors
- Mental Health/Personality
Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI) - Used to evaluate psychiatric disorders and psychological distress. Administration can be conducted to evaluate patient’s progress through the treatment process.
Client Evaluation of Self and Treatment (TCU-CEST) – “A ‘family’ of four assessments for monitoring client needs and progress”
Treatment Needs and Motivation (TCU MOTForm) – Scales used mainly for intake and early treatment phases to measure Problem Recognition, Desire for Help, Treatment Readiness, Treatment Needs, and Pressures for Treatment.
Psychological Functioning (TCU PSYForm) – Scales to measure depression, anxiety, self-esteem, decision making, and expectancy.
Social Functioning (TCU SOCForm) – Scales to measure hostility, risk-taking, social support, and social desirability.
Treatment Engagement (TCU ENGForm) – Scales to measure treatment participation, treatment satisfaction, counseling rapport, and peer support.
Beck Depression Inventory – “Measures characteristic attitudes and symptoms of depression”.
Beck Anxiety Inventory – Measures anxiety levels.
Zung Depression Self-Rating Depression Scale – A screening tool for symptoms associated with depression.
Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) – Used to identify personality structure and psychopathology.
- Intelligence/ Education
Wonderlic Cognitive Ability Test – A general intelligence test used for selection and placement of business personnel.
Comprehensive Adult Assessment Systems (CASAS) – An organization that provides basic skills assessments.
Student Online Readiness Tool (SORT) – An assessment to measure readiness for online learning.
Test of Adult Basic Education (TABE) – An academic assessment to assess skills and knowledge of adult learners.
University of Rhode Island Change Assessment (URICA)- Used to identify an individual’s readiness to change.
Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) – Used to assess alcohol abuser readiness to change.
Readiness to Change Questionnaire – “Measures the stage of change of an excessive drinker of alcohol”.