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Article 11 - Corporations

Section 1. The General Assembly shall not have power to establish, or incorporate, any bank or banking company, or moneyed institution, for the purpose of issuing bills of credit, or bills payable to order or bearer, except under the conditions prescribed in this Constitution.

Section 2. No banks shall be established otherwise than under a general banking law, except as provided in the fourth section of this article.

Section 3. If the General Assembly shall enact a general banking law, such law shall provide for the registry and countersigning, by an officer of State, of all paper credit designed to be circulated as money; and ample collateral security, readily convertible into specie, for the redemption of the same in gold or silver, shall be required; which collateral security shall be under the control of the proper officer or officers of State.

Section 4. The General Assembly may also charter a bank with branches, without collateral security, as required in the preceding section.

Section 5. If the General Assembly shall establish a bank with branches, the branches shall be mutually responsible for each other's liabilities, upon all paper credit issued as money.

Section 6. The stockholders in every bank, or banking company shall be individually responsible, to an amount, over and above their stock, equal to their respective shares of stock, for all debts or liabilities of said bank or banking company.

Section 7. All bills or notes issued as money shall be, at all times, redeemable in gold or silver; and no law shall be passed, sanctioning, directly or indirectly, the suspension, by any bank or banking company, of specie payments.

Section 8. Holders of bank notes shall be entitled, in case of insolvency, to preference of payment over all other creditors.

Section 9. No bank shall receive, directly or indirectly, a greater rate of interest than shall be allowed by law, to individuals loaning money.

Section 10. Every bank or banking company, shall be required to cease all banking operations, within twenty years from the time of its organization, and promptly thereafter to close its business.

Section 11. The General Assembly is not prohibited from investing the trust funds in a bank with branches; but in case of such investment, the safety of the same shall be guaranteed by unquestionable security.

Section 12. The State shall not be a stockholder in any bank, after the expiration of the present bank charter; nor shall the credit of the State ever be given, or loaned, in aid of any person, association or corporation; nor shall the State hereafter become a stockholder in any corporation or association.

Section 13. Corporations, other than banking, shall not be created by special act, but may be formed under general laws.

Section 14. Dues from corporations, other than banking, shall be secured by such individual liability of the corporators, or other means, as may be prescribed by law.