Henry Hamilton's Journal Footnotes

Notes from John D. Barnhart, "Sources of Information":

The published letters of Henry Hamilton are to be found in the Michigan Pioneer Collections (M. P. C.), the Wisconsin Historical Collections (W. H. C.), and the Illinois Historical Collections (I. H. C.).

More important than any of these documents is Hamilton's "Journal," a manuscript which he began when a messenger arrived at Detroit, August 6, 1778, bringing word that the Americans had taken Kaskaskia, a day by day record of his actions in which he wrote almost daily, and which was discontinued only when he was imprisoned in the jail at Williamsburg, Virginia, and deprived of pen and ink on June 16, 1779. It contains one hundred and sixty-six large pages of manuscript in Hamilton's handwriting. . . .


135 Colonel Mason Bolton was in command at Niagara from whence Iroquois Indians were sent to attack the Pennsylvania and Virginia frontiers during the Revolution. Fort Niagara gave protection to the lake route to Detroit and the West and served as a forwarding point for trade goods and supplies. The letters were probably those of August 8 to Germain and Carleton. See ante note 62.

136 These papers are printed in M P C, IX, 464 - 473. The "Dunmore" was a schooner built in 1772 for the small British fleet on the Great Lakes. Milo M. Quaife, "The Royal Navy of the Upper Lakes," in the Burton Historical Collection Leaflet, II, No. 5 (May, 1924), 49 - 64.

137 These letters were dated August 2, 6, and 10, 1778, M P C, IX, 398 - 402. See Hamilton to Haldimand, September 9, 1778, in ibid., 473.

138 According to letters written at this time Antoine Bellefeuille came on the eighth, and a Captain Betton brought the letters on the fifteenth. The letters which came on the fifteenth were Haldimand's of August 26 and 27, which Hamilton interpreted as authorizing his expedition. See ibid., 402 - 404, 473, 484, and 647 - 648.

139 The letter to Haldimand is in ibid., 475 - 477. It notified him of Hamilton's intention of attacking Clark. The letter to Cramahé is in ibid., 463 - 464.

140 Major Carleton was a nephew of the Governor.

141 This was probably Paul Joseph Le Moine, Chevalier de Longueuil, who had been in command at Detroit for the French, 1743 - 1748 and who was known as the fourth baron.

142 This is an interesting point! Did Clark have inside help in taking Kaskaskia? Intimation of the design of the Americans before June 9 would indicate that someone expected him.

143 Charles Gouin was a lieutenant of the militia at Detroit. Ibid., 473. Hamilton's "Journal" indicates that Gouin accompanied the expedition at least to the Miamis.

144 The number of boats and carts which were used on the expedition are given in M P C, IX, 409.

145 The minutes of a council with these tribes on the twenty-fourth are printed in ibid., 482 - 483. The four tribes mentioned had been closely associated for many years and had lived at different places along the shores of the upper lakes. Probably all of them had a village or villages in the vicinity of Detroit. They had been friendly with the French but after the uprising in 1763 they transferred their allegiance to the English. They co-operated loyally with Hamilton during his journey to Vincennes. He described Sastaharitzé on the next to the last page of his Journal, as the nominal prince of the Huron or Wyandot Indians, as a well disposed man who was easily led, given to liquor, and as not attended to in his Nation other than as hereditary chief. He was about thirty-eight years of age. S. Bellin, Le Petit Atlas, Recueil de Cartes et Plans des Quatre Parties du Monde, Premier Volume Contenant L'Amerique Septentrionale et Les Isles Antilles (Paris, 1764), Map No. 12.

146 Bloody Bridge was the bridge over Bloody Run, the scene of the defeat of Captain James Dalyell during the Indian uprising of 1763. Howard H. Peckham, Pontiac and the Indian Uprising (Princeton, New Jersey, 1947), 201 - 209. St. Bernard's was probably the farm of a well-known family north of the village on the Northeast Coast.

147 Wyndeego, possibly Windigo, a Potawatomi chief, was present at a council in Detroit, June 14, 1778, before accompanying Hamilton to Vincennes. His name was annexed to a grant of land as a Potawatomi chief on June 28, 1780, and Windigo, a Potawatomi chief, attached his mark to the Treaty of Fort Harmar. M P C, IX, 442 - 443; Quaife, John Askin Papers, I, 175; and Treaties between the United States of America and the several Indian Tribes, from 1778 to 1837 (Washington, 1837), 23 - 28.

148 Alexander McKee was a native of Pennsylvania who remained loyal to the King. He fled from Pittsburgh, March 28, 1778, with Simon Girty and Matthew Elliott. At this time he was a captain in the Indian Department. He led expeditions against the American frontiers. M P C, IX, 470, and Consul W. Butterfield, History of the Girtys (Cincinnati, Ohio, 1890), 43 - 53. The Shawnee were located along the Scioto and Miami rivers from whence they raided the Kentucky, Virginia, and Pennsylvania frontiers sometimes under leaders appointed by Hamilton. They were a vigorous warlike tribe. Hamilton's "Journal" reflects some of this warfare.

149 The letters referred to are printed in M P C, X, 297 - 298. One was an appeal by the Virginians to help them against the British.

150 The Wabash Indians included the Piankashaw, Kickapoo, Wea, and Miami tribes. The Piankashaw lived along the Wabash from Vincennes to the mouth of the Vermillion River. The Kickapoo lived at the mouth of the Vermillion and westward into Illinois. The Wea were at Ouiatenon, while the Miami were along the upper Wabash. These tribes were not as loyal to the British as were the Lake Indians.

151 The carrying place was the portage between the Maumee and Wabash rivers.

152 Canadian Archives, B 121, 199 - 200.

153 Some of these items were printed in M P C, IX, 409, 482 - 485, and X, 297 - 298.

154 Captain Henry Bird was an officer in the Eighth or King's Regiment. He was active in the British service during the Revolution. He is known as the leader of the expedition which captured Martin's and Ruddell's stations in Kentucky in 1780.

155 Riviere Rouge, which flows into the Detroit River at the southern edge of modern Detroit, is the river which Henry Ford has made so well known.

156 This was the famous attack on Boonesborough, Kentucky.

157 Celoron Island, which was named after Pierre Joseph Celoron deBlainville, lies at the mouth of the Detroit River. See ante, note 69 and Quaife and Glazer, Michigan, 79.

158 Old Raccoon, a chief of the Chippewa Indians, went on the Vincennes expedition. On December 24, he was referred to as Wabangay.

159 Rock River flows into the western end of Lake Erie between River Raisin and River Huron according to Patrick McNiff's Plan of Settlement of Detroit, 1796, reproduced from the Original Manuscript in the Clements Library (Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1946).

160 Bellin, Le Petit Atlas, I, map 6, locates Baye Dononquisse at the western end of Lake Erie just above the mouth of the Maumee River. Jean B.B. d'Anville, Canada, Louisiane, et Terres Angloises ( [Paris], 1775), also gives this bay. The river which Hamilton called the Miamis is the one now known as the Maumee. The Wyndatts were Wyandot or Huron Indians.

161 McNiff's Plan of the Settlement of Detroit, 1796, gives Pointe au Chene on the north side of the mouth of the Maumee where it flows into Maumee Bay.

162 Riviere a L'Anguille is the Eel River of Indiana. See Hamilton's entries for November 19, 21, and 24.

163 This name is not clear. It seems to have been written poorly elsewhere and has been transposed as Shourd, Shrowd, and Howe. M P C, IX, 491, 493.

164 On the last page of Hamilton's Journal is a list of four Indians "given to" Hamilton. "Mohingan, the Wolf" was given by the Ottawa. In Hamilton's entry for December 23, there is this remark: "My Son Mahingan the young Ottawa chief, who had followed me from the pointe aux Chesnes tho' very ill ...."

165 Captain Alexander Grant was commander of the fleet on the Great Lakes between Niagara and Michilmackinac.

166 Petit Rocher is not identified on contemporary maps. It may have been another rocky point near Rocher de Bout. It seems likely that Hamilton did not get as far as Rocher de Bout the first day's travel up the rapids.

167 Macutté Wassong or Warsong was a Chippewa chief. Thomas Morris referred to him as the great Chippewa chief. See Thwaites, Early Western Travels, I, 303.

168 Rocher de Bout was a rocky point projecting into the Maumee River above the site of General Anthony Wayne's victory of Fallen Timbers in 1794. Milo Quaife, "A Narrative of Life on the Old Frontier," in Wisconsin Historical Society Proceedings, 1914 (Madison, 1915), 215, note 6.

169 Neegik is not mentioned again in the Journal. Since he was a brother of Chaminatawa, he must have been an Ottawa. His name may be translated as The Otter.

170 Gros Loup was a Miami chief who was with Hamilton along the upper Maumee, but who did not accompany him to Vincennes.

171 There is a speech of Lagesse, which was made in 1792, in A S P, Indian Affairs, I, 241, in which he claimed to be the "first and great chief.. of the Potawatomi. Major Hamtramck to Rufus Putnam, August 9, 1792, refers to the son of this chief. Ibid., 241.

172 Wassanagnaa was one of the few Potawatomi chiefs mentioned by Hamilton. Only Wyndeego, whose branch of the tribe lived along the St. Joseph River near Lake Michigan, figured prominently in the expedition.

173 Agusheway, sometimes Egushewai, was head chief of the Ottawa who lived near Detroit. He was wounded at Fort Recovery in 1794, took part in the battle of Fallen Timbers, and signed the Treaty of Greenville. A S P, Indian Affairs, I, 566; Treaties between the United States . . . and the several Indian Tribes, 1778-1837, pp. 54-63; and Thwaites and Kellogg, Frontier Defense, 10, n. 29. He was mentioned many times by Hamilton.

174 Prairie de Mascoutens is given by DuVernet, Sketch of the River Miamis, as three leagues or approximately nine miles above Grand Rapids.

175 Pacane, the Nut, was the head chief of the Miami. His village was Kekionga on the St. Joseph River, at the site of Fort Wayne. He was succeeded by Little Turtle and he in turn by Jean Baptiste Richardville who was a nephew of Pacane. Thomas Morris referred to him in 1764 as "king of the Miami nation" and as just out of his minority. Thwaites, Early Western Travels, I, 316-317, Quaife, "Narrative of Life on the Old Frontier," in W H S P, 1914, p. 223 and n. 30; Elmore Barce, The Land of the Miamis (Fowler, Indiana, 1922), 48 et passim. Hibon was not mentioned again in this Journal. The Isles de Maima may be the "I. de Mama" of DuVernet's map. If this is correct, Hamilton encamped the night before near the Grand Rapid.

176 L'isle aux Aigles was about eight miles below the mouth of the Grande Glaize, which we know as the Auglaize River, the principal tributary of the Maumee, which flows into the latter at Defiance, Ohio. The pays plat or the flat country was the twenty-five miles below the mouth of the Auglaize.

177 See ante, n. 76. Le Marais de l'Orme, or the marsh of the elms, was about one-third the distance between the mouth of the Auglaize and the source of the Maumee, or between Defiance and Fort Wayne. See DuVernet's map mentioned ante, note 78.

178 Kushaghking, Coshocton, or Goschachgunk was the chief town of the Turtle clan of the Delaware Indians, 1775 to 1781. It was located at the forks of the Muskingum and Tuscarawas rivers. Thwaites and Kellogg, Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 46, n. 73.

179 See ante, 45.

180 The Petit Gris was a prominent Miami chief whose village was on the west bank of the St. Joseph. Hamilton wrote on November 15 that the French called him Le Petit Gris, the English the dappled fawn, and the Miami Waspikingua or Necaquangai. See A S P, Indian Affairs, I, 93-94, 565; and Quaife, "Narrative of Life on the Old Frontier," in W H S P, 1914, p. 221, n. 30. Gros Loup was another Miami chief.

181 The Great Couette agreed to a grant of land in 1775 as a Piankashaw chief. A S P, Indian Affairs, I, 338-339.

182 Hamilton to Haldimand, Miamistown, October 28, 1778, in I H C, I, 359-360.

183 These Potawatomi lived along the St. Joseph River of the Lake where Louis Chevalier had his trading post.

184 The Shawnee towns were on the Great Miami and Scioto rivers. Peter Lorimier or Laramie had a post on Loramie's Creek near the start of the portage between the Great Miami and the St. Marys River. He was an agent for the British. Thwaites and Kellogg, Revolution on the Upper Ohio, 144, n. 49.

185 The Little River is sometimes called the Little Wabash. Hamilton to Haldimand, Camp at Petite Riviere, November 1, 1778, in W H C, XI, 178-181.

186 Chemin couvert means covered way. It was in the southwestern corner of present Allen County, Indiana.

187 The riviere à boete is the modern Aboite. The early surveyors' maps show a widening of the Little River in the southwestern corner of Allen County and their notes indicate that the southern boundary of section 26 was swampy. This was probably the location of the swamp which Hamilton called "les Volets." He probably meant he had come ten miles since leaving the western end of the portage.

188 On December 9, Hamilton referred to the White Fish as an old Shawnee chief. He accompanied Hamilton to Vincennes. The space within the parenthesis is blank.

189 Riviere a l'Anglais is probably a form of Langlois,- the name of an early trader. Langlois Creek flows into Little River a short distance below the mouth of the Aboite.

190 This was five or six miles east of the forks of the Wabash where the Little River reaches bed rock.

191 The forks of the Wabash is the junction of the Little River and the Wabash.

192 A reconnoitering party.

193 The Salamonie is the first important tributary of the Wabash River below the forks. Thomas Hutchins, A New Map of the Western Parts of Virginia, Pennsylvania, Maryland and North Carolina . . . (London, 1778), erroneously drew it as a northern tributary. Apparently Hamilton encamped near the sloping maple or l'Erable penchée, which may have been below the forks of the Wabash in section 14, township 28 north, range 8 east, there are rapids in the Wabash which Hamilton may have referred to at this point.

194 This may have been Hanging Rock two miles from the present town of Lagro. If this is true, he may have camped somewhere near the site of Lagro on the night of November 16. The rock is nearly 80 feet high.

195 The Mississinewa River is the second important tributary of the Wabash below the forks. Hamilton was in error when he wrote that it was on the northeastern side.

196 Hutchins drew the Calumet River on his New Map (1778), as flowing into the Wabash from the north between the Eel and the Mississinewa. It is also shown on a manuscript map in the Clements Library entitled: North America east of the Mississippi. The encampment for November 18-24 was near the mouth of Eel River or present day Logansport. There were several Indian villages in the vicinity.

197 Riviere à l'Anguille is the modern Eel River.

198 Ouiat is an abbreviation of Ouiatenon, one of the early French forts and trading posts, around which the Wea, Ouiatenon, or Ouia Indians were located. It was located approximately four miles south of modern Lafayette, Indiana, on the west bank of the Wabash and below the mouth of Tippecanoe River. See also Hamilton to Haldimand, Ouiatenon, December 4,1778, in I H C, I, 220-225.

199 This is the modern Tippecanoe River.

200 The Piankashaw contract was the sale of two large tracts of land along the Wabash River to the Wabash Land Company by the Piankashaw Indians.

201 Jacob P. Dunn, Indiana and Indianans (5 vols., Chicago, 1919), I, 89, gives the name as Kenapacomaqua. Aaron Arrowsmith, Map of Northern United States and Canada (London, 1798, additions to 1802), gives Eel Town or Kenapacomaqua or Languille of the French.

202 William Ball, president of the Cass County, Indiana, Historical Society, and Robert B. Whitsett of the L'Anguille Valley Historical Society, Logansport, Indiana, have identified this bluff, of which Hamilton made a sketch, as Rock Cliff at the east end of Cedar Island upon which the Logansport Country Club has its club house.

203 The Wabash falls 20 feet in 4 miles from 3 miles above to 1 mile below the mouth of Eel River.

204 Hutchins, A New Map (1778), shows a "Riv. de Petit Rocher" flowing into the Wabash from the north a short distance below the mouth of Eel River. The location corresponds roughly with Hamilton's Petit Rocher. The surveyor's map shows a rocky ledge five miles below the mouth of Eel.

205 Evidently this island was close to the Petit Rocher, but it is not shown on the maps. Hamilton probably made little progress on the twenty-fifth.

206 "The Isle of Garlic," or l'isle a l'ail, is located approximately four miles above Delphi, Indiana, or some ten miles above the mouth of Tippecanoe River.

207 Hutchins, A New Map (1778), locates a mine on the north bank of the Wabash a few miles above the mouth of the Tippecanoe River. Hamilton's ideas about the source of the Tippecanoe and the settling of the country were quite erroneous.

208 The Indian princess was described by Hamilton in the entry for December 2. "Teized" is a variation of tease, to tear apart.

209 Logan Esarey, History of Indiana from its Exploration to 1850 (Indianapolis, 1915), 34, stated that it was destroyed by the Indians and that it was not rebuilt. He seems to have meant that it was destroyed in 1763.

210 Kissingua was later sent from Vincennes on a mission to John Stuart, the Indian agent of the southern department.

211 Quiquapouhquáa was probably a Kickapoo chief. He brought the flag to Hamilton three days later, and went part of the way at least to Vincennes.

212 Little Face was a Wea or Ouiatenon chief who accompanied Hamilton to Vincennes.

213 LaNatte's son-in-law was Tuette who was mentioned in the entry for December 3. Neither one was mentioned as having gone to Vincennes.

214 This was a short sword. Quiquaboe should be understood as Kickapoo.

215 There was a Kickapoo village a short distance south of Ouiatenon.

216 Forgeron is not mentioned again so presumably he did not go to Vincennes.

217 The Vermillion River flows into the Wabash from the northwest. As the Kickapoo lived along its banks, this village was probably a Kickapoo village. Hamilton must have camped on the east bank of the Wabash nearly opposite to the present town of Newport, Indiana.

218 This is not far from the site of Terre Haute.

219 La Mouche Noire lived very near Vincennes, but was not mentioned again.

220 Lieutenant Michel Brouilet was an officer of the Vincennes militia. James, Clark Papers, I, 56, and 91.

221 This oath is given in Hamilton's "Report" to Governor Haldimand in French and in somewhat different translation. See James, Clark Papers, I, 183.

222 This is the modern White River.

223 This is another reference to the Wabash Land Company's purchase. It is interesting to note that Hamilton knew of Lord Dunmore's connection with it.

224 The modern Tennessee River was then sometimes called the Cherokee River.

225 This is Francis Vigo.

226 Eskibee is mentioned as a Potawatomie chief on January 28, 1779.

227 These men were Sieur Janis and Gabriel Cerré who had already made peace with Clark. See James, Clark Papers, I, 47-49, 228-229, 235-237, 361.

228 This was an attempt to overcome the traditional and long-standing hostilities between the Shawnee and the Southern Indians.

229 From December 15 to 30, the "Journal" is supplemented by Hamilton to Haldimand, St. Vincennes, December 18 [to 28], 1778, in I H C, I, 227-235. The prices of provision are given in Canadian Archives, B 122, 254, the plan of Fort Sackville on 251a, the return of the troops on 253, and the placart on 233, but the census seems not to have been preserved.

230 Little River must have been the little stream just north and east of Vincennes. Hamilton said its distance from the village was two miles. It is shown by Hutchins, A New Map . . . 1778.

231 See ante, note 229.

232 The abbreviations stand for "nothing extraordinary."

233 For Father Gibault see ante, note 63.

234 The Delaware received permission from the Miami and the Piankashaw to settle between the Ohio and White rivers about 1770.

235 The extent of exaggeration in this report may be estimated after reading Clark's account in James, Clark Papers, I, 132-133, 265-266.

236 Hamilton to His Excellency, Don Bernardo de Galvis, St. Vincennes, January 13, 1779, in I H C, I, 377-378.

237 Matthew Elliott was a native of Ireland who came to Pennsylvania at an early age. He entered the Indian trade and became very influential among the Shawnee. He was a captain in the British Indian department after March 28, 1778, and was active against the American frontiers. See Thwaites and Kellogg, Frontier Defense, 249, note 5.

238 Patte de Dinde, or Turkey Foot, was located on the Maumee River about five miles above the Grand Rapids. See DuVernet's Sketch of the Miamis River.

239 Substance of a Conference with the Indians, St. Vincennes, January 26, 1779, in I H C, I, 394-397. See also Hamilton to Haldimand, St. Vincennes, January 24, 1779, in ibid., 389-393.

240 This William Williams was a brother of Captain John Williams of Clark's expedition, who was not so kind to Hamilton's Indians. Hamilton's kindness was misplaced in this instance. James, Clark Papers, I 323, 326, 354. See post February 11, 1779, for William Williams' escape.

241 Nicaquongai was the Miami for Le Petit Gris, a prominent chief of the Miami. See ante, note 180.

242 Captain Hugh Lord was commandant of the Illinois villages from 1772 to 1776. The abbreviations refer to Louis XV and George III.

243 Lieutenant Joseph Bondy was an officer of the Indian department who accompanied Hamilton. See M P C, IX, 485. For Raimbault see post, note 252.

244 Jean Baptiste Romain dit Sanscrainte was probably the younger man of that name. J. Robert was listed as belonging to La Mothe's Volunteers. James, Clark Papers, I, 111.

245 The riviere aux embarras is the Embarrass River of Illinois which empties into the Wabash a short distance below Vincennes.

246 This is a reference to the battle of Ushant, July 27, 1778, between Admiral Augustus, Viscount Keppel and Admiral the Comte d'Orvilliers. See William L. Clowes, The Royal Navy (7 vols., London, 1897-1903), III (1898), 412-426.

247 These messages are given in "Journal of Joseph Bowman," in James, Clark Papers, I, 160-161, but the wording varies considerably. See also ibid., 165-166, 187, and 285. Hamilton does not mention his request for a truce of three days.

248 See ibid., 281.

249 The terms are given on page 19 of the Journal. Since they differ somewhat from the terms as stated by James, they are given in full.

"Proposals sent from Lieutt. Govr. Hamilton to Colonel Clarke previous to the surrender of Fort Sackville February 24th 1779 Lieutenant Governor Hamilton engages to deliver up to Colonel Clarke Fort Sackville as it is at present with all the stores, ammunition and provision, reserving only thirty six rounds of powder and Ball per man, and a sufficiency of provision for the subsistence of the garrison for their progress by land or water as shall hereafter be agreed upon

"The garrison are to deliver themselves up prisoners of war, and to march out with their arms accoutrements and Knapsacks

"A Guide, or guides to be furnished by Colonel Clarke, with a safeguard to escort the garrison to its destination, as also horses for the transport of provision, should the garrison march by land

"The garrison not to be deliverd up, till a person employed by Colonel Clarke, shall have received an account of stores & ca

"Three days to be allowed the garrison, from time of signing the articles of capitulation, for providing shoes and other necessaries for the journey ( if by land ) and for baking bread, as also for settling accounts with the traders of the post

"Officers, or others of the garrison who have families, to be allowed to return to their homes, on promise of not acting during the present contest between Great Britain and America.

"Sick and wounded are recommended to the humanity and generosity of Colonel Clarke, any charges incurred by them to be discharged by Lieutt. Govr. Hamilton, who will leave a draft for fifty pounds (New York Currency) for their use

"Officers to take their private baggage

Henry Hamilton

Signed at Fort Sackville"

250 This is mentioned in Bowman's Journal in James, Clark Papers, I, 162.

251 What countenance the Governor maintains.

252 Raimbault was a trader who lived at Ouiatenon. He was apparently trying to redeem his reputation with Hamilton when he was captured by some of Clark's men. See Hamilton's Journal for November 30, and December 1, 1778.

253 See ante, 71-72, 166-167.

254 The persons referred to were Charles Langlade and Charles Gautier. See ante, 61-62.

255 James, Clark Papers, I, 305-306, 309-310.

256 See ante, 18-19.

257 These men were Captain William Williams and Lieutenant John Rogers.

258 Green River flows into the Ohio from the south a short distance upstream from Evansville, Indiana.

259 These abbreviations seem to mean "nothing extraordinary."

260 This was Captain William Harrod who had been one of Clark's captains in the Illinois campaign. He was a brother of James Harrod. He was at this time in command of the fort at the Falls of the Ohio. See English, Conquest of the Country Northwest of the River Ohio, I, 122-123, et passim.

261 C. C. probably refers to Colonel Clark.

262 Harrodsburg was the first village founded in the Kentucky Blue Grass and one of the villages that had felt seriously Hamilton's war on the American frontier.

263 This messenger was William Myers, Moires, or Moyers. See James, Clark Papers, I, 305-306 and note, 309-310.

264 Colonel John Bowman was the county-lieutenant of the county of Kentucky and a brother of two of Clark's men, Joseph and Isaac Bowman. He was a resident of Harrodsburg.

265 Logan's Fort or station was one of the earliest settlements in the Kentucky Blue Grass. The location on which it was established by Colonel Benjamin Logan is today within the city of Stanford, Kentucky. It was also called St. Asaph. Colonel Benjamin Logan resided at St. Asaph or Logan's Fort. He was a leader in the warfare of the day and later in the formation of the state of Kentucky.

266 William Whitley built a large brick house at an early date between Logan's Fort and the Crab Orchard. This was called Whitley's Fort.

267 This stream was known as Skaags Creek, although Hamilton wrote Craggs. It flowed into Rockcastle River near the Hazel Patch.

268 The crossing of Rockcastle River was near the Hazel Patch.

269 This was Colonel Richard Calloway, an early pioneer of Kentucky who was killed by the Indians within a year of the time Hamilton made this journey.

270 Stinking Creek flows into Cumberland River in the vicinity of Big Flat Lick, to which Hamilton referred, and where Boone's Trace left the Warriors' Path. The two traces followed the same route from Cumberland Gap northward to the far side of Cumberland River at the lick.

271 When Hamilton passed Cumberland Mountain, he crossed Cumberland Gap into Powell Valley and proceeded northeastwardly along Powell river.

272 These objects of natural beauty are in the vicinity of modern Jonesville, Virginia. Unfortunately these sketches seem to have been lost.

273 Powell Mountain in the watershed between Powell River and Clinch River, both of which rise in southwestern Virginia and eventually join their waters with the Holston and other streams to form the Tennessee River..

274 Moccasin Gap brought the travelers through Clinch Mountain into the valley of the North Fork of the Holston. Hamilton's terminology seems a little confused at this point but he proceeded to the vicinity of modern Bristol.

275 General Lewis may have been General Aaron Lewis and Major Bletsoe was Major Anthony Bledsoe who lived near Sapling Grove or the present Bristol.

276 Hamilton was now east of the Blue Ridge.

277 The restoration of Williamsburg offers the visitor the opportunity to see the buildings of the colonial capital and the rooms of the jail to which Hamilton referred.