"We don't intend to fall in anymore at the end of the parade"

A Note Regarding Resources: Items are listed on this page that enhance work with the topic discussed. Some older items, especially, may include dated practices and ideas that are no longer generally accepted. Resources reflecting current practices are noted whenever possible

Student Reading


  • Mildred D. Taylor is the author of several books about the black experience during the 1930s, 1940s, and 1950s. Although the setting for her works is not Indiana, the stories are based on true experiences and could have happened almost anywhere.
  • The American Film Institute. Last Breeze of Summer. 30 minute videocassette, 1991. Distributed by Carousel Film & Video.
  • This 1991 Academy Award Nominee for Best Dramatic Short is about a young girl’s first day in a desegregated school in Texas (1957).


  • Arthur, Stephen, and Julia Arthur. Your Life & Times: How To Put A Life Story On Tape—An Oral History Handbook. Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., Inc., 1987.
  • This excellent handbook has sample questions arranged according to section and subject.
  • Brown, Cynthia Stokes. Like It Was: A Complete Guide to Writing Oral History. New York: Teachers & Writers Collaborative, 1988.
  • Instructions for writing oral histories and biographies are presented in an informative and interesting manner suitable for advanced students.
  • Grunsell, Angela. Racism. London: Gloucester Press, 1991.
  • Explains how to take an informed stand on the issue of racism. Suitable for younger students.
  • Lee, Gregory. Discrimination. Vero Beach, FL: The Rourke Corporation, Inc., 1991.
  • The concept of prejudice and types of discrimination are discussed. Suitable for intermediate and advanced students.
  • Wilson, Anna. African Americans Struggle for Equality. Vero Beach, FL: Rourke Corporation, Inc., 1992.
  • The struggle for equality in education and employment opportunities is the focus of this work. Suitable for intermediate and advanced students.

General Sources

  • Bigham, Darrel E. We Ask Only a Fair Trial: A History of the Black Community of Evansville, Indiana. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, in association with University of Southern Indiana, 1987.
  • Excellent source covering history to mid-twentieth century of legal rights, employment, housing, society, and education in Evansville’s black community.
  • Brant & Fuller, pub. History of Vanderburgh County, Indiana. Evansville: Unigraphic, Inc., reprint 1979.
  • Excellent, in-depth history of Vanderburgh County and Evansville. Originally published in 1889.
  • Evansville Argus. Microfilm copies located in the Indiana Division, Indiana State Library.
  • This black newspaper was published in Evansville from June 1938 until October 1943. A full set of the paper is located in the Special Collections Department, University of Southern Indiana, Evansville.
  • Freedom to the Free: Century of Emancipation, 1863-1963. A Report to the President by the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963.
  • Outstanding source on 100 years “of placing the Nation’s recent civil rights progress in its historical context” (Letter of Transmittal, iii).
  • Gibbs, Wilma L., ed. Indiana’s African-American Heritage: Essays from Black History News & Notes. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Society, 1993.
  • Contains an informative article on the history of the Evansville Argus written by Darrel Bigham.
  • Hine, Darlene Clark. When the Truth is Told: A History of Black Women’s Culture and Community in Indiana, 1875-1950. Indianapolis: The National Council of Negro Women, Indianapolis Section, 1981.
  • Chapter Four of this publication is an in-depth look at Evansville’s Sallie Wyatt Stewart.
  • Sprinkles, Dallas W. The History of Evansville Blacks. Evansville: Mid-America Enterprises, 1974.
  • A general, informative history of early Evansville black community.
  • Thornbrough, Emma Lou. Since Emancipation: A Short History of Indiana Negroes, 1863-1963. [Indianapolis]: Indiana Division American Negro Emancipation Centennial Authority, [1963].
  • This excellent 98-page book is out-of-print but available in libraries.
  • Thornbrough, Emma Lou. The Negro in Indiana: A Study of a Minority. Indianapolis: Indiana Historical Bureau, 1957.
  • An excellent general source for the period up to 1900. There is a 1994 reissue by Indiana University Press.

Special Thanks

  • To Dr. Darrel Bigham, History Department, University of Southern Indiana, for his research and advice.
  • To Gina Walker, Certified Archivist, University of Southern Indiana, for her prompt and courteous service in gathering illustrative material.