Every child in care has experienced some form of trauma. Special needs are unique challenges each child faces and will require committed parents to support the child in overcoming these challenges throughout their life.
Indiana defines a child with "special needs" as:
- A child who is two (2) years of age or older; or,
- A child who is a member of a sibling group of two or more children of which at least one is two (2) years of age or older and who will be placed with the sibling group in the same home; or,
- A child with a medical condition or a physical, mental, or emotional disability as determined by a physician or psychiatrist licensed to practice in Indiana or another state.
Many of the children in need of an adoptive home are over the age of six (6) years old. The majority of children that are available are between the ages of 11 to 16 and male. Children in care often have brothers and/or sisters, so adoptive families for siblings are especially needed. Many of the available children do have emotional needs and some may have medical needs.
A prospective adoptive parent can be given a more detailed biography (or social summary) of a child if they have been recommended for the Indiana Adoption Program. For more information about how to begin the adoption process, click here.
Below are some of the common challenges experienced by children in care.
- Attachment Disorder
- Attention Deficit Disorder/ Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD)
- Emotional Disability (ED)
- Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAS/FAE) Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND)
- Learning Disability (LD)
- Mental Disability
Many of the children, regardless of their age, in the Indiana Adoption Program have experienced abuse. This can mean physical abuse, emotional abuse, sexual abuse or any combination of these types of trauma. Abuse generally leaves its mark with behavioral problems, physical impairments and therapeutic needs that require the attention of parents and professionals working together to benefit the child's future development.
This term describes a child's ability to form relationships. Children who have been abused, neglected or have experienced disruptions in significant relationships may face challenges in creating new relationships.
An attachment disorder is a condition in which children have difficulty forming loving, lasting close relationships. Attachment disorders vary in severity, but the term is usually reserved for those who show a nearly complete lack of ability to be genuinely affectionate with others. They may seem distant, insincere or uncaring and have difficulty trusting others.
ADD/ADHD is a diagnosable, treatable, biologically based disorder. The primary symptoms include some combination of being inattentive and being distracted, being impulsive, and in some children, physical restlessness or hyperactive behavior.
Developmental Disabilities (DD)
This term describes many conditions that may be mild or severe and generally includes any physical, mental or emotional condition, which will continue to inhibit the normal developmental progress of a child. Many children have educational requirements that must be met through the Special Education process of their school.
A child born to a mother who used drugs such as cocaine or certain pharmaceuticals while she was pregnant may have damage to their nervous system. A newborn will appear stiff and rigid and have prolonged crying episodes and be at an increased risk for Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS). Some children will develop behavior and learning difficulties.
Abuse, trauma and sometimes genetics can result in various degrees of multiple emotional challenges. This term is also used as eligibility criteria for services at school through Special Education under state and federal law.
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects (FAS/FAE)
Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND)
FAS/FAE is a set of physical, mental and neurobehavioral birth defects associated with alcohol consumption by a child's birth mother during pregnancy. Prenatal alcohol exposure does not always result in FAS - although there is no known safe level of alcohol consumption during pregnancy. Some children affected by alcohol exposure before birth do not have the characteristic facial abnormalities and growth retardation identified with FAS, yet they may have brain and other impairments that are just as significant. Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder (ARND) describes the functional or mental impairments linked to prenatal alcohol exposure.
Children with learning disabilities may be of average or above average intelligence but have difficulties remembering or understanding information. This term is also used as eligibility criteria for services at school through Special Education under state and federal law.
Mental disabilities is a term that is used to describe a wide variety of different challenges and can affect children in ways that are unique to each child, especially in regards to levels of severity. This is also a term used as eligibility criteria for Special Education services.
Neglect is the absence of essential and healthy nurturing of a child for their physical, intellectual and emotional development. Neglect includes physical neglect, child abandonment and expulsion, medical neglect, inadequate supervision, emotional neglect and educational neglect by parents, parent substitutes, and other adult caretakers of children. Children who have experienced neglect may be challenged with emotional problems.