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CONDITIONS ALONG THE INDIANA COASTLINE


The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers completed a study in 1978 entitled REPORT ON INDIANA SHORELINE EROSION. The report details areas along the shoreline in Lake, Porter, and LaPorte Counties where erosion damage occurred and projects future erosion damages. Areas that were identified as having a non-critical recession rate of less than one-foot per year include Marquette Park, Miller Beach, and Ogden Dunes. Areas where erosion was occurring at a rate greater than three feet per year include Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore, Beverly Shores, Indiana Dunes State Park, Porter and Dune Acres. Recession rates at Long Beach and Duneland Beach are not identified in the Army Corps report. The areas with recession rates of greater than three feet per year extend along 13 miles of Indiana's 45 mile shore. However, these 13 miles of shoreline are designated natural areas where development is not likely to occur or areas that already are protected by structures. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers concludes in the report that of Indiana's 45 miles of shoreline, only 2 miles are subject to critical erosion. 18

In 1981, the Great Lakes Coastal Research Laboratory of Purdue University published a report which provided detailed shoreline recession, bathymetric profile, and coastal inventory data. The report focused upon the shoreline area between Michigan City and the Indiana-Michigan border and outlined the existing conditions of this reach of shore.19 A similar compilation of data was published by Purdue University in 1986. This report targeted the area of coastline west of the Michigan City Harbor to USX and Gary Harbor complex. Recommendations were included in the report for improved management of Indiana's shoreline.20 Indiana's western most shoreline of Lake Michigan was studied by an engineering firm for the evaluation of a marina site in Hammond. These three reports present highly detailed analysis of coastal conditions along the Indiana shoreline. However, the studies lack an integrated time base and unified presentation for the entire stretch of Indiana coast.

Indiana's 45 miles of shoreline can be divided into six distinct segments or reaches, separated, in most cases, by the presence of a man-made coastal structure.21 The reaches, moving from east to west along the coast, are identified as follows:

  • Reach 6 (CZM): Indiana-Michigan border to the Michigan City Harbor.

  • Reach 1: Michigan City Harbor to boundary between the Town of Beverly Shores and the Indiana Dunes State Park at Kemil Road.

  • Reach 2: Kemil Road to the east side of the Burns International Harbor complex.

  • USX and Gary Hardor complex: Burns International Harbor to the USX- Gary Harbor complex.

  • Reach 4: Buffington Harbor to the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal complex.

  • Reach 5: Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal to the Calumet Harbor in Illinois.


The segments have been evaluated in the above mentioned studies independently because no significant sediment transport occurs between them. The total littoral barriers formed by the coastal structures separating the cells influence adjacent updrift and downdrift reaches of coastline, but at the same time isolate each reach except for Reach1 and Reach2.

There are three areas not designated in the Reaches which constitute total littoral barriers. These areas are heavily constructed lengths of shoreline and provide no source of sediment.22 The areas were excluded from the designated reaches for study purposes by the Army Corps because the shoreline is completely protected by erosion protection structures. These areas include:

  • Burns International Harbor Complex (Burns International Harbor, Bethlehem Steel, and National Steel Company.)


  • USX lakefill breakwater to the east side of the Buffington Harbor structure.

  • Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal complex (Inland Steel and LTV Steel.).



Characteristics of Shoreline Reaches

Reach 6

Generally, this reach of shoreline between the Indiana-Michigan border and the Michigan City Harbor is recessional at the eastern end at the state line, fairly well armored in the central section along the community of Long Beach, and accretional at the western end near the Michigan City Harbor.23 In 1988, LaPorte County placed rock revetment from the Indiana-Michigan state line southwestward to protect Lake Shore Drive from the threat of erosion. Shortly after that, the remaining unprotected portion of Lake Shore Drive was protected with rock revetment up to the eastern most house of Long Beach. All of the stone was placed on the back beach at the toe of the existing bluff. In many places, the rock has been buried by sand blowing landward off the beach. The rock revetment abuts a series of continuous vertical walls of various types, placed by private homeowners, along the community of Long Beach. Aerial photographs taken in 1987 show this area of the shoreline is completely protected by seawalls. Immediately east of the Michigan City Harbor lighthouse jetty, the shoreline is protected by a federal "U.S. East Breakwater" as the north wall of the Washington Park Marina, and an abandoned federal "East Breakwater" protecting the adjacent marina parking lot. Between the east edge of the parking lot and the west end of the vertical seawall in Long Beach is the open shoreline of Washington Park Beach which is not protected by any form of hard structure. Dynamically, this open beach lies updrift of the Michigan City Harbor jetty which actively traps sand on its east side.24


Reach 1 and 2

Reaches 1 and 2 are a continuous littoral system bounded by the Michigan City Harbor complex to the east and the Burns International Harbor complex to the west.25 This length of coastline is generally recessional throughout both Reaches. Dune-bluff recession and erosion in the extreme eastern end of Reach 1, near the Michigan City Harbor structure, is the highest on the Indiana coastline.26 The Michigan City Harbor jetties and breakwater complex act as a total sediment barrier.27 Normally, the highest rate of erosion would occur immediately west of this complex, at Trail Creek; however, a steel sheet piling seawall with stone toe protection protecting the NIPSCO property prevents this erosion. As a result, the location of severe erosion is transferred westward. This zone of high erosion is created at the areas of Crescent Dune and Mount Baldy in the Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore. Erosion rates gradually decrease westward toward the Town of Beverly Shores.28 In 1974, a rock revetment was constructed along the town's coast to protect Lake Front Drive from erosion. The 13,000 foot long revetment, which terminates at West Derby Avenue, lies along the shoreline just north of the Town of Beverly Shores. The National Lakeshore property is unprotected from West Derby Avenue to the east boundary of the Indiana Dunes State Park at Kemil Road, except for an isolated area that was protected by rock near the west end of Beverly Shores.

The eastern boundary of Reach 2 coincides with the eastern boundary of the Indiana Dunes State Park (Kemil Road). The western boundary of Reach 2 is formed by the eastern most breakwater of the Burns International Harbor complex. Immediately west of the western boundary of the State Park is a portion of the National Lakeshore in the Town of Porter. West of the National Lakeshore property is private property in the Town of Porter. West of the Town of Porter lies the Town of Dune Acres of which most is protected. The shoreline just west of the Town of Dune Acres is owned by the National Lakeshore which has a fairly high rate of erosion.

West of the National Lakeshore property in the extreme western portion of Reach 2 which is the Bailly Power generating station owned by NIPSCO. Since the eastern breakwater of the Burns International Harbor complex acts as a total barrier to sediment moving westward along the shoreline, a steel sheet piling wall with a series of shore perpendicular groins that was constructed at NIPSCO before the port was in place has been buried by the sediment accumulation. The lake bottom around NIPSCO's offshore circular crib structure, which the company relies upon to intake water from the lake for cooling purposes, must be dredged every two to three years to avoid being clogged with accumulating sand.

Between Reach 2 and Reach 3 lies 2.6 miles of coastline where Burns International Harbor, Bethlehem Steel, and National Steel Midwest Division industrial complex is located. The Bethlehem Steel breakwaters include an eastern breakwater, oriented perpendicular to the shore, extending 2,000 feet out into the waters of Lake Michigan. There is a northern breakwater enclosing Lake Michigan waters which previously served as Bethlehem Steel's permitted lakefill disposal site for slag. West of this breakwater is 1,500 feet of manmade shoreline forming the south side of the entrance channel to Burns International Harbor. On the north side of the entrance channel is a federally owned, northern rubble mound breakwater that protects the harbor basin from north storm waves. A series of submerged breakwaters were completed in 1998 lakeward of this main breakwater to reduce the size of storm waves impacting the Harbor structure. The northern 1,200 feet of the shore perpendicular western breakwater is federally owned and is constructed of the same rubble mound as the northern breakwater. South of the rubble mound wall is 2,400 feet of steel sheet piling binwall owned by National Steel Midwest Division. The shoreline immediately west of the Harbor has rock revetment in place to control erosion on the eastern most portion of National Steel's shoreline. At the western end of National Steel's shore is the east jetty wall of the Burns Waterway Small Boat Harbor at the mouth of the Portage Burns Waterway.


Reach 3

Reach 3 is a closed littoral system bounded by Burns International Harbor to the east and USX-Gary Harbor complex to the west.29 This length of coastline is accretional in the western third near Gary and recessional in the eastern third near Ogden Dunes. The Burns International Harbor complex traps sand at the western end of Reach 2, creating a zone of erosion from National Steel westward toward Ogden Dunes.30 The eastern boundary of Reach 3 coincides with the east wall of the Burns Waterway Small Boat Harbor where Portage Burns Waterway flows into Lake Michigan. Construction plans for the Harbor structure included recommendations to ameliorate adverse effects downdrift of the new structure. As a result of the orientation of the west shore-connected breakwater of the Small Boat Harbor, an additional portion of the shoreline is protected. An extension of the revetment in 1984 along National Steel's property on the west side of Portage Burns Waterway provides shore protection beyond what is protected by the Small Boat Harbor.31 Between the west end of National Steel's rock revetment and the eastern boundary of the Town of Ogden Dunes is open erodible beach owned by the National Lakeshore. The eastern most properties in Ogden Dunes have armored their shoreline with vertical steel sheet piling walls. Stone toe protection was anticipated to be added on the lakeward side of any sheet steel walls. In 1997, a second steel seawall was constructed 19 feet north of the existing walls because of a threat to the old wall. The concern was the old wall might be undermined due to high lake levels, the presence of waves, and excessive toe scour of the lake bottom in front of these walls. The homes in Ogden Dunes are now protected by some form of erosion protections except for one at the western end.32 The shoreline west of the Town of Ogden Dunes is part of the National Lakeshore which is considered relatively stable. West of the National Lakeshore is a length of shoreline owned by the City of Gary. The eastern portion of Gary's shoreline beginning at Wells Street Beach and extending to Montgomery Street, is fronted by private property in the community of Miller; however, the beach area is owned by the City of Gary. Wells Street Beach area in Gary, located just west of the Lake-Porter County line, is the only portion of Reach 3 which suffers from erosion. West of Montgomery Street is Marquette Park. The remaining length of coastline in Reach 3, which abuts the U.S. Steel-Gary Harbor complex, is National Lakeshore property. The western portion of Reach 3 is characterized by wide beaches due to the breakwall of the U.S. Steel-Gary Harbor complex which traps the westward moving sand in this area.33

Several factors contribute to the absence of erosion problems throughout the west end of Reach 3. The first factor is sand trapping at the USX lakefill breakwater results in wide beaches and growing sand dunes toward the east. After the breakwater was built, and more sand accumulated on the east side of the wall, the benefits of the wider beach widths and abundant sand expanded farther toward the east. This is the same effect seen at the west end of Reach 2 at the NIPSCO Bailly power plant and the sand trapping effect east of the Michigan City Harbor jetty in Reach 6. Where wide beaches and growing sand dunes exist on the updrift (east) side of sand trapping structures there is an abundance of sand available to repair any damage to the beach caused by storm waves, so hard man-made erosion protection structures are not needed. The second factor is the east-west orientation of the shoreline on this portion of Indiana's coast. The City of Gary is located at the southern tip of Lake Michigan. Therefore, the largest storm waves from the north approach with their wave crests parallel to the beach which tend to move sand primarily on-and-off-shore on the same portion of beach, rather than carrying large quantities of sand along the shoreline out of the immediate area of erosion, which occurs when waves approach the beach at an angle.

The shoreline between the west end of Reach 3, formed by the eastern breakwater of what previously served as the USX/Gary Harbor lakefill structure, and the east end of Reach 4 located at the west side of Buffington Harbor, encompasses approximately 7.8 miles of highly industrialized, man-made land, built out into the waters of Lake Michigan and hardened from erosion by various forms of erosion protection structures.

At the eastern most end of this heavily industrialized portion of Indiana's shoreline is the eastern USX lakefill breakwater which extends 1,700 feet out into the waters of Lake Michigan. The southern 1,200 feet is a form of rock revetment and the northern 500 feet is vertical steel sheet piling circular binwall. The northern wall enclosing the former lakefill area is 9,600 feet of binwall. At the west end of this lakefill area is the 250 foot wide Gary Harbor Works channel. The Gary Harbor Works breakwater attaches to the shoreline just west of the channel and extends out into Lake Michigan to protect the harbor entrance from waves. West of the Gary Harbor Works breakwater is 21,000 feet of binwall fronting the rest of USX's property.

The Northern Indiana Power Service Company (NIPSCO) Dean Mitchell power generating station is located west of USX. The NIPSCO shoreline is protected by rock revetment except where the cooling water intake and discharge channels are located. West of the NIPSCO plant is the Marblehead Lime and Lehigh Cement property, protected by rock revetment along the shoreline. Immediately west of this shoreline is Lehigh's Buffington Harbor structure. A 300 foot long wall extends lakeward forming the south side of a 700 foot wide entrance channel to the harbor. The northern harbor breakwater is 1,200 feet of rubble mound breakwater which protects the harbor from north storm waves. The 2,000 foot long western breakwater is vertical steel sheet piling binwall. South of the binwall breakwater is 600 feet of rock revetment attaching the binwall to the existing shoreline and protecting the binwall from end erosion. Recently, two gaming facilities were constructed in Buffington Harbor. Two breakwaters were built inside Buffington Harbor to provide the necessary added protection from wave effects for the "river boats."

Reach 4

Reach 4 is bounded by Buffington Harbor on the east and on the west by the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal industrial complex, the largest lakefill structure on Indiana's Lake Michigan coast, located in the City of East Chicago. Both of these structures prevent any longshore movement of sand into or out of this Reach. On the Gary (east) side of the Gary-East Chicago corporate boundary is a large portion of open beach shown by aerial photographs to be backed by rock revetment. On the East Chicago (west) side of the corporate boundary line is approximately 550 feet of beach. The beach in East Chicago is bounded on its east side by a jetty structure which lies on the Gary-East Chicago corporate boundary. The jetty extends lakeward from the Gary shoreline. The East Chicago beach is bounded on its west side by a new break water which was constructed to protect a new gaming boat facility. Sand primarily moves back and forth along the shoreline between the primary industrial structures during storms. However, it is possible to lose sand offshore to deeper water during exceptionally severe storm events. While this could result in beach erosion, Reach 4 is so heavily armored and industrialized, it is not possibly to evaluate whether this erosion would be significant.

In the western most portion of Reach 4 is East Chicago's Pastrick Marina basin and boat launch facilities. The east side of the marina basin is formed by the west side of a new gaming boat facility formerly known as Jeorse Park, and a 300 foot rock stub breakwater attached to the shoreline of the park. The stub breakwater forms the south side of the entrance channel to the marina basin. The north marina basin wall is formed by a rubble mound breakwater which is attached to the Indiana Harbor lakefill structure to the west.

East Chicago recently constructed a second outer breakwater which now surrounds the existing Pastrick Marina, creating a large outer basin to house a gaming boat. The new southeast breakwater attaches to the former Jeorse Park shoreline 550 feet west of the corporate boundary jetty, preserving the existing East Chicago beach. This southeast breakwall extends 1,000 feet out into Lake Michigan. The wall turns west and extends 1,000 feet northwest forming the main wave protection structure of the new basin. The outer entrance channel is formed between the west end of the new main breakwater and the Indiana Harbor Inland Steel lakefill structure. Inside the new entrance is a new stub breakwater, attached to the existing Pastrick Marina main north breakwater forming the west side of the inner entrance channel. The existing beach in East Chicago has been expanded by using dredge material from the new basin construction as beach nourishment.

Between Reach 4 and Reach 5 is approximately 2 miles of ancient shoreline on which the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal complex was built and extends lakeward approximately 14,000 feet (2.65 miles) into the waters of Lake Michigan. The eastern portion of the complex, situated between the centrally located Indiana Harbor channel on the west and the lakefill breakwater to the east, is the Inland Steel Company. An 8,600 foot long rubble mound breakwater extends from the Pastrick Marina basin, along the south and southeast side of Inland Steel, to the steel mill's water plant intake facility. The remaining 3,700 feet on the southeast side of Inland Steel is vertical steel sheet piling binwall. This binwall continues around Inland Steel's 8,900 foot long northeast and 5,200 foot long northwest breakwalls. This wall is exposed to direct attack by Lake Michigan's largest north storm waves. A 600 foot section of rubble mound breakwater forms the east side of the mouth of the centrally located 1,000 foot wide Indiana Harbor entrance channel. On the west side of this entrance channel is the LTV Steel Company. LTV Steel's lakefill is protected from the direct attack of northerly storm waves by its 2,100 foot long northeast and the 4,950 foot long northwest rubble mound breakwaters. Another 2,800 feet of rock revetment completes the northwest side of LTV's lakefill and attaches to the Amoco Oil Company shoreline which is immediately west of the Indiana Harbor lakefill complex. Approximately 7.2 miles of breakwater surrounds both Inland Steel and LTV Steel.


Reach 5

Reach 5 is the western most portion of Indiana's shoreline adjacent to the State of Illinois. Reach 5, while it technically ends at the Indiana-Illinois State line, is part of a larger closed littoral cell formed by the Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal complex as the southeastern boundary, and the Calumet Harbor Breakwater attached to the Illinois shoreline as the northwestern boundary. Dynamically, the direction of sediment movement along the shoreline in Reach 4 and Reach 5 should be toward the southeast as referenced in earlier sections of this chapter. But because these two reaches are bounded by structures that extend out into Lake Michigan several miles, portions of the shoreline near the structures are so sheltered from direct attack by the north storm waves that the direction of significant waves approach to the shoreline end up being from the northeast and east directions in both reaches, and also from the southeast direction in Reach 5. While transported sediment would normally be expected to accumulate on the northwest side of all the structures west of the southern most tip of Lake Michigan located at the City of Gary's Marquette Park area, this is not always the case. Man's alteration of the natural shoreline through construction has altered the direction of primary wave approach which has reversed the direction of net sand movement in many areas. Because Reach 4 and Reach 5 have been so extensively modified, resulting in many structures interrupting and influencing the movement of sand along the shoreline, it is difficult to interpret the coastal dynamics in this area.

The eastern most portion of Reach 5 is owned by the Amoco Oil Company. There is a stretch of beach between the Indiana Harbor complex and Amoco's water treatment facility. A revetment protects Amoco's water treatment plant, built out into Lake

County and Reach

Location

Length of Shoreline (ft)

High Erosion Hazard Area (ft)

Protected Shoreline (ft)

Method of Protection

LaPorte County (Reach 6)

Michiana Shores

350

350

350

Rock revetment

 

Duneland Beach

3,750

650

3,750

Rock revetment

 

Long Beach

11,000

2,300

10,800

Vertical walls and rock revetment

 

Michigan City, Washington Park Beach

11,250

0

0

 

LaPorte County

(Reach 1)

Michigan City, Washington Park Marina

1,400

0

1,400

Federal breakwater

 

NIPSCO

5,550

0

5,550

Steel sheet piling and stone toe protection seawall

 

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

3,550

3,550

0

 

Porter County (Reach 1)

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

7,000

7,000

0

 
 

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

13,000

12,000

13,000

Rock revetment

 

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

3,600

3,600

0

 

Porter County (Reach 2)

Indiana Dunes State Park

17,200

3,900

0

 
 

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

620

0

0

 
 

Town of Porter

2,300

700

?

 
 

Town of Dune Acres

7,850

7,850

5,450

Combination of vertical walls and rock revetment

 

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

4,800

1,000

0

 
 

NIPSCO

1,900

0

1,900

Vertical walls and groins

 

National Steel Midwest Division

800

800

800

Burns Small Boat Harbor breakwater

Porter County (Between Reach 2 and 3)

Burns International Harbor complex

19,180

0

19,180

Industrial

Porter County (Reach 3)

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

1,000

1,000

0

 
 

Ogden Dunes

4,750

4,050

3,300

Vertical sheet piling walls and toe stone

 

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

6,150

650

0

 

Lake County (Reach 3)

City of Gary

15,500

470

0

 
 

Indiana Dunes National Lakeshore

2,750

0

0

 

Lake County (Between Reach 3 and Reach 4)

USX - Gary Harbor complex

41,250

0

41,250

Industrial

Lake County (Reach 4)

City of Gary

4,500

0

?

Industrial

 

East Chicago

2,300

0

1,750

Rock revetment

Lake County (Between Reach 4 and Reach 5)

Indiana Harbor and Ship Canal complex

37,850

0

37,850

Industrial

Lake County (Reach 5)

Amoco Oil Company

6,850

0

2,750

Rock revetment

 

City of Whiting

2,500

0

2,500

Rock revetment

 

Lake County Parks and Recreation Department

4,450

720

0

 
 

City of Hammond

7,650

0

7,650

Binwall, breakwater, and rock

 

Commonwealth Edison Plant

4,730

0

4,630

Wooden piling

TOTAL

 

257,330

(49 miles)

50,590

(9.5 miles)

163,860

(31 miles)

 


Michigan on lakefill. West of the water treatment facility is an additional stretch of Amoco beach. Both of the beaches in this area are backed by rock revetment. The sand on these beaches is trapped from moving along the shoreline by the adjacent man-made structures. West of the Amoco shoreline is the Whiting Park facility, also built on lakefill material. The eastern wall of Whiting Park extends out into Lake Michigan from Amoco's shoreline. A jetty extends lakeward off this wall, and forms the east side of the Whiting-Robertsdale boat club boat launch ramp and small staging basin. The basin is protected on the north by a breakwater. Occasional maintenance dredging is required, and some of the sand is used as beach nourishment at the Lake County Whihala Beach Park, to the northwest. The west side of the boat launch facility is a point of lakefill land with a retractable fishing pier, which is rolled lakeward during the summer months, supported by a steel framework built out into the lake. West of the fishing pier and launch basin is a rock revetment protecting the City of Whiting Park parking lot. The northwest wall of the Whiting lakefill was used by Lake County Parks and Recreation Department as the southeast wall of the Whihala Beach boat launch and small staging basin. A breakwater, extending from the Whiting Park revetment, forms the east side of the entrance to the basin and boat launch ramp. A northern breakwater protects the basin from north storm waves. This facility was built on lakefill material which extends into Lake Michigan from the Whihala beach. West of the boat launch facility is the Whihala Beach Park facility. Much of this shoreline has been protected by rock revetment, however, a portion of the shoreline west of the Whihala boat launch facility suffers from the threat of significant erosion. This is the only area west of Reach 3 that retains sufficient natural qualities to be evaluated for potential erosion. The property making up the northwestern half of the park was recently acquired by Lake County as part of Whihala Park Beach. At the far northwest end of the park is the southeast wall of the Hammond Water Filtration Plant. The Lake County Parks and Recreation Department recently constructed a new fishing pier extending out into Lake Michigan from the lakeward end of the filtration plant.

The Hammond Marina complex lies northwest of Whihala Beach County Park. The Hammond Water Filtration Plant, built on lakefill material, serves as both the northwest boundary of Whihala Beach park and a part of the southeast side of the Hammond Marina boat basin. A stub breakwater, attached to the water filtration plant, forms the remainder of the south side of the marina and one side of the marina entrance channel. The long main rubble mound breakwater forms the north side of the entrance channel and protects the boat basin from waves off Lake Michigan. A unique feature of this marina is the 'tandem' breakwater system, consisting of a submerged breakwater located parallel to and offshore of the main rubble mound marina wall. The purpose of the submerged breakwater is to trip incoming storm waves, thereby reducing the amount of energy impacting on the main breakwater wall. The construction of the submerged breakwater was intended to allow the use of a smaller cap stone size on the main breakwater, resulting in reduced construction cost. The northwest end of the main rubble mound wall is attached to the shoreline by a vertical sided binwall, forming the northwest side of the basin. Recently, the City of Hammond opened a gaming boat, moored on the southeast side of the marina basin. A portion of the filtration plant property was used to build the land-side gaming support facilities including a multi-level parking garage.

West of the Hammond Marina northwest binwall is the Hammond Lakefront Bird Sanctuary. The City of Hammond recently acquired this property from NIPSCO. Improvements for recreation along this beach area are being planned. When the Hammond Marina was constructed, dredge material was placed along the nonerodible shoreline, lakeward of the bird sanctuary as beach nourishment. Subsequent erosion of this material carried a portion of this sand toward the northwest, forming a beach adjacent to the Commonwealth Edison State Line Generating Station's southeast lakefill breakwater structure. The construction plans for the gaming boat facility at the Hammond Marina recommend additional dredging of the marina basin. The plans recommend that the dredge material be placed northwest along shoreline of the bird sanctuary .

The last structure on Indiana's shoreline, before the Indiana-Illinois state boundary, is the Commonwealth Edison Power Plant. The southeast breakwater extends approximately 850 feet out into Lake Michigan, forming the east side of the lakefill. Immediately northwest of the Commonwealth Edison plant is short length of shoreline abutting the state line.


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