Organized at Indianapolis December 24, 1863 through March 31, 1864; the 28th Regiment, U. S. Colored Troops was the only African-American regiment organized in Indiana. Its initial training took place at Camp Fremont located near the south side neighborhood of Fountain Square, in Indianapolis, Indiana. The regiment's commanding officer at this time was Captain Charles S. Russell.
On April 24, 1864 the 28th was sent to Washington, DC and then to Alexandria, Virginia for further training. Near White House, Virginia, on June 21, 1864, the 28th Regiment participated in its first combat. Then the regiment accompanied General Sheridan's Cavalry through the Chickahominy swamps to Prince George Courthouse suffering "severe losses from frequent skirmishes with the enemy".
The regiment then participated in the siege operations around Petersburg and Richmond from July 1864 through the beginning of April, 1865; marched into Richmond, April 4, 1865. During that time it was engaged at the "Crater", July 30, 1864; the Weldon Railroad, August 18-21, 1864; Poplar Grove Church, September 29-October 1, 1864: Boydton Plank Road, Hatcher's Run, October 27-28, 1864 stationed on the Bermuda Hundred front lines and before Richmond until April, 1865; marched into Richmond, April 4, 1865.
At the war's end, there was much unrest in the West, especially in Texas. The 28th Regiment, United States Colored Troops took up duty at Brazos, Santiago and Corpus Christi, Texas until November, 1865. The regiment was mustered out of the U.S. Army, November 8, 1865 with a public reception held in Indianapolis, Indiana, January 8, 1866.