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Indiana State Department of Health

Indiana Dentist and Dental Hygienist Surveys, 1998 > Indiana Dentist and Dental Hygienist Surveys, 1998 Indiana Dentist and Dental Hygienist Surveys, 1998

Acknowledgements

The Indiana Dentist and Dental Hygienist Surveys Databook is the result of a collaborative partnership involving the Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH), the Indiana Health Care Professional Development Commission (HCPDC), the Indiana Health Professions Bureau (HPB), and the Indiana State Board of Dental Examiners.

The ISDH gratefully acknowledges the support and input of the Indiana University School of Dentistry, the Indiana Dental Association, the Indiana Society of the National Dental Association, the Indiana Dental Hygienists' Association, and the Indiana Commission for Higher Education. The ISDH also expresses appreciation to Claudia Siegel, MA, MPA, consultant to the HCPDC, for survey development, data analysis, and overall production of the databook series.

Executive Summary

At the recommendation of the Indiana Health Care Professional Development Commission, voluntary surveys of Indiana-licensed dentists and dental hygienists were carried out collaboratively by the Indiana State Department of Health and the Indiana Health Professions Bureau. The surveys were designed to assess the adequacy of supply and distribution of health care professionals in Indiana. The surveys included questions related to practice activities and hours, major dental practice areas, practice location and setting, educational background, and demographic characteristics.

Indiana Dentist Survey Highlights

  • The survey had a response rate of 80.5 percent. A total of 3,539 dentists were mailed a license renewal and voluntary survey in January 1998. Of the 3,364 dentists who renewed their license, 2,708 (80.5 percent) returned a survey with at least one response. Of the 2,708 dentists responding to the survey, 2,180 reported a principal practice location in Indiana. Of these 2,180 dentists, 2,146 were classified as "Active."

  • The great majority of Indiana dentists spend 20 or more hours in patient care per week. Other activities, such as research, teaching and administration, occupy dentists for under 20 hours per week. On average, Indiana dentists spend about 35 hours per week in patient care.

  • Dentists in oral and maxillo-facial surgery spend more hours in patient care per week (37.0 hours per week) than dentists in other practice areas, followed by dentists in public health (36.5 hours per week), endodontists (36.4 hours per week), implant dentists (35.0 hours per week), and general dentists (34.9 hours per week).

  • About 78 percent (1,673) of Indiana's dentists are in urban areas, and about 22 percent (473) are in rural areas. Rural dentists spend slightly more hours per week (34.5) at their principal practice location than urban dentists (33.0).

  • Almost 78 percent of all Indiana dentists reported general dental practice as their major dental practice area. Six percent reported orthodontics as their major dental practice area, and 3.5 percent cited pediatric dentistry as their major dental practice area.

  • The vast majority of Indiana dentists practice in a private dental office (95.6 percent), and the majority are self-employed (56.5 percent), although some function as a professional corporation (26.7 percent).

  • About 83 percent (1,759) of Indiana dentists reported only one practice location in Indiana, and 12 percent (258) reported a principal and secondary location in Indiana. Most dentists reporting a second location in Indiana reported working 1-8 hours at the secondary location (59.8 percent).

  • Most Indiana dentists are in solo practice (60.1 percent), although about 26.6 percent have another dentist practicing with them. A greater proportion of rural dentists practice alone (70.8 percent) than urban dentists (57.1 percent). About 67 percent of Indiana dentists employ at least one dental hygienist, and there is no significant difference between rural and urban dentists in this respect. Rural and urban solo dentists also show no significant difference in the proportion who work without dental hygienists.

  • About 82 percent of Indiana dentists received their undergraduate education in Indiana, and about 86 percent received their DDS degree from Indiana University School of Dentistry. About 78 percent of Indiana dentists received both their undergraduate and dental education in Indiana. Approximately 90 percent of Indiana dentists have some type of Indiana educational connection.

  • Approximately 89 percent of all active dentists with a principal practice location in Indiana are male; 11 percent are female. About 97 percent of dentists practicing in Indiana are white, about 1 percent are Black/African American, about 1 percent are Asian/Pacific Islander, about 0.3 percent are American Indian/Alaskan Native, and about 0.6 percent are of other racial extraction. About 1 percent of all dentists are of Hispanic origin.

Indiana Dental Hygienist Survey Highlights

  • The survey had a response rate of 84.1 percent. A total of 3,132 dental hygienists were mailed a license renewal and a voluntary survey in January 1998. Of the 2,990 dental hygienists who renewed their license, 2,515 (84.1 percent) returned a survey with at least one response.

  • Of the 2,515 dental hygienists responding to the survey, 1,787 reported a principal position location in Indiana. Of these, 1,785 were classified as 'Active.'

  • About half of Indiana's dental hygienists have been in practice for under 10 years, and the other half have been in practice for 11 years or more.

  • The great majority of Indiana's dental hygienists spend most of their time in patient care activities. Rural and urban dental hygienists spend about the same amount of hours in patient care per week, about 26 hours on average.

  • The predominant major practice area for dental hygienists is general dentistry. About 89 percent of all dental hygienists cite general dental practice as their major practice area, while about 4 percent cite dental public health, 3.2 percent cite periodontics, and 3.1 percent cite pediatric dentistry.

  • About 24 percent of Indiana's dental hygienists have a second position in Indiana. The majority of those with a second position work 1-8 hours per week in their second position.

  • About 90 percent of Indiana's dental hygienists have an associate degree as their highest degree in dental hygiene. About 83 percent of dental hygienists have an associate degree as their highest degree overall. Eighty-four percent of dental hygienists received their first dental hygiene degree in Indiana.

  • Ninety-nine percent of all active dental hygienists with a principal position location in Indiana are female; barely one-percent are male. Slightly under 95 percent of Indiana dental hygienists are under the age of 55. About 99 percent are white, 0.6 percent are Black/African American, 0.2 percent are Asian/Pacific Islander, 0.1 percent are American Indian/Alaskan Native, and 0.2 percent are of other racial extraction. About 1 percent of all dental hygienists practicing in Indiana are of Hispanic origin.

1998 Dentist Survey Procedure, Response Rates, and Derivation of the Analysis Pool

Survey Procedure

The Indiana State Department of Health (ISDH) and the Indiana Health Professions Bureau (HPB) collaborated in implementing the 1998 Indiana Dentist Survey. Voluntary surveys were attached to the 3,539 dentist license renewals mailed in January 1998 (see Appendix A). Dentists were asked to complete the survey and return it with their license renewal.

All surveys received were electronically scanned and the data were then programmed for purposes of statistical analysis. Protocols were developed for both the scanning and programming processes to assure as much as possible the consistency and comprehensiveness of the data. Every effort was made to reconcile any apparent anomalies, such as duplicate survey identifier numbers.

After survey data had been scanned and programmed, the data were linked to the HPB's licensing database and screened for current licensure status and HPB Action Codes which might indicate limited practice activity. Using survey responses, data were also screened for activity status (hours per week in dentistry; temporarily inactive in dentistry; retired from practice/permanently inactive in dentistry).

Overview

The following pages of this chapter set out dentist survey response rates and describe the methods used to derive the group of dentists whose data were analyzed. Chapter 11 then provides a description of the demographic and professional characteristics of 2,146 dentists with an Indiana license and an Indiana principal practice location who were neither residents-in-training nor federally-employed. Chapter 11 begins with a summary fact sheet containing highlights from the tables in the chapter. The data include information related to demographic characteristics (age, sex, race and ethnicity) and professional practice (major dental practice area, dental activities and hours, types of practice settings, types of employment, the ages of patients treated by dentists, and dentist educational background).

Terminology

Each table includes information on the number of "Missing" responses. "Missing" is the total number of unusable and blank responses to the question(s) on which a table is based. "Missing" responses have not been included in the calculation of percentages.

For county-level tables, "Federal Rural Designation" denotes those counties designated by the federal Health Resources and Services Administration as rural. There are 55 rural counties and 37 metropolitan counties in Indiana. Based on 1998 census figures, the 55 rural counties contain approximately 1,668,988 people, which is about 28.3 percent of the state's 1998 population.

Chart 1A: 1998 Indiana Dentist License Renewals

Of the 3,539 dentists to whom a license renewal and a voluntary survey were mailed, 3,364 (95.1 percent) renewed their practice license.

Chart I-B, Dentist Survey Response Rate

Of the 3,364 dentists who renewed their license and received a voluntary survey, 2,708 (80.5 percent) returned a survey with at least one response. Table I-B shows the survey return rate by mailing address (Indiana or other location).

Table I-B, Survey Response Rate by Indiana County of Mailing Address or Other Location Mailing Address

County

Federal
Rural
Desig.

Survey
Response

%
Responding

Blank
Surveys

% Blank

Unreturned
Surveys

%
Unreturned

Total

%

Adams

 

11

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

11

100.0%

Allen   142 82.6% 2 1.2% 28 16.3% 172 100.0%
Bartholomew R 24 63.2% 1 2.6% 13 34.2% 38 100.0%

Benton

R

2

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

2

100.0%

Blackford

R

3

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

3

100.0%

Boone

 

24

82.8%

0

0.0%

5

17.2%

29

100.0%

Brown

R

2

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

2

100.0%

Carroll

R

5

83.3%

0

0.0%

1

16.7%

6

100.0%

Cass

R

6

66.7%

0

0.0%

3

33.3%

9

100.0%

Clark

 

24

82.8%

0

0.0%

5

17.2%

29

100.0%

Clay

  5

62.5%

0

0.0%

3

37.5%

8

100.0%

Clinton

 

9

90.0%

0

0.0%

1

10.0%

10

100.0%

Crawford

R

1

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

1

100.0%

Daviess

R

6

85.7%

0

0.0%

1

14.3%

7

100.0%

Dearborn

 

8

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

8

100.0%

Decatur

R

7

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

7

100.0%

De Kalb

 

9

60.0%

0

0.0%

6

40.0%

15

100.0%

Delaware

 

44

83.0%

0

0.0%

9

17.0%

53

100.0%

Dubois

R

16

88.9%

0

0.0%

2

11.1%

18

100.0%

Elkhart

 

56

87.5%

0

0.0%

8

12.5%

64

100.0%

Fayette

R

6

85.7%

0

0.0%

1

14.3%

7

100.0%

Floyd

 

36

92.3%

0

0.0%

3

7.7%

39

100.0%

Fountain

R

5

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

5

100.0%

Franklin

R

3

75.0%

0

0.0%

1

25.0%

4

100.0%

Fulton

R

6

85.7%

0

0.0%

1

14.3%

7

100.0%

Gibson

R

14

93.3%

0

0.0%

1

6.7%

15

100.0%

Grant

R

28

84.8%

0

0.0%

5

15.2%

33

100.0%

Greene

R

13

92.9%

1

7.1%

0

0.0%

14

100.0%

Hamilton

 

98

77.8%

0

0.0%

28

22.2%

126

100.0%

Hancock

 

16

84.2%

0

0.0%

3

15.8%

19

100.0%

Harrison

 

12

92.3%

0

0.0%

1

7.7%

13

100.0%

Hendricks

 

45

78.9%

0

0.0%

12

21.1%

57

100.0%

Henry

 

17

94.4%

0

0.0%

1

5.6%

18

100.0%

Howard

 

39

79.6%

3

6.1%

7

14.3%

49

100.0%

Huntington

 

9

75.0%

0

0.0%

3

25.0%

12

100.0%

Jackson

R

13

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

13

100.0%

Jasper

R

9

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

9

100.0%

Jay

R

7

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

 

100.0%

Jefferson

R

16

94.1%

0

0.0%

1

5.9%

17

100.0%

Jennings

R

4

80.0%

0

0.0%

1

20.0%

5

100.0%

Johnson

 

55

82.1%

1

1.5%

11

16.4%

67

100.0%

Knox

R

11

73.3%

1

6.7%

3

20.0%

15

100.0%

Kosciusko

R

20

87.0%

0

0.0%

3

13.0%

23

100.0%

Lagrange

R

6

85.7%

0

0.0%

1

14.3%

7

100.0%

Lake

 

198

82.5%

2

0.8%

40

16.7%

240

100.0%

LaPorte

R

49

84.5%

1

1.7%

8

13.8%

58

100.0%

Lawrence

R

18

90.0%

0

0.0%

2

10.0%

20

100.0%

Madison

 

43

76.8%

0

0.0%

13

23.2%

56

100.0%

Marion

 

479

79.0%

5

0.8%

122

20.1%

606

100.0%

Marshall

 

15

83.3%

0

0.0%

3

16.7%

18

100.0%

Martin

R

3

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

3

100.0%

Miami

R

8

88.9%

0

0.0%

1

11.1%

9

100.0%

Monroe

 

51

81.0%

0

0.0%

12

19.0%

63

100.0%

Montgomery

R

17

94.4%

1

5.6%

0

0.0%

18

100.0%

Morgan

 

19

79.2%

0

0.0%

 

20.8%

24

100.0%

Newton

R

2

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

2

100.0%

Noble

R

10

71.4%

0

0.0%

4

28.6%

14

100.0%

Ohio

 

2

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

2

100.0%

Orange

R

4

80.0%

0

0.0%

1

20.0%

5

100.0%

Owen

R

4

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

4

100.0%

Parke

R

3

75.0%

0

0.0%

1

25.0%

4

100.0%

Perry

R

7

87.5%

0

0.0%

1

12.5%

8

100.0%

Pike

R

3

75.0%

0

0.0%

1

25.0%

4

100.0%

Porter

 

66

86.8%

0

0.0%

10

13.2%

76

100.0%

Posey

 

7

87.5%

0

0.0%

1

12.5%

8

100.0%

Pulaski

R

4

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

4

100.0%

Putnam

R

8

66.7%

0

0.0%

4

33.3%

12

100.0%

Randolph

R

8

88.9%

0

0.0%

1

11.1%

9

100.0%

Ripley

R

11

84.6%

0

0.0%

2

15.4%

13

100.0%

Rush

R

3

75.0%

0

0.0%

1

25.0%

4

100.0%

St.Joseph

 

108

79.4%

2

1.5%

26

19.1%

136

100.0%

Scott

 

6

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

6

100.0%

Shelby

 

10

83.3%

0

0.0%

2

16.7%

12

100.0%

Spencer

R

5

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

5

100.0%

Starke

R

3

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

3

100.0%

Steuben

R

11

91.7%

0

0.0%

1

8.3%

12

100.0%

Sullivan

R

6

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

6

100.0%

Switzerland

R

1

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

1

100.0%

Tippecanoe   44 78.6% 1 1.8% 11 19.6% 56 100.0%

Tipton

 

3

60.0%

1

20.0%

1

20.0%

5

100.0%

Union

R

2

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

2

100.0%

Vanderburgh   97 91.5% 0 0.0% 9 8.5% 106 100.0%

Vermillion

 

3

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

3

100.0%

Vigo

 

51

83.6%

1

1.6%

9

14.8%

61

100.0%

Wabash R 12 100.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 12 100.0%

Warren

R

1

100.0%

0

0.0%

0

0.0%

1

100.0%

Warrick   17 85.0% 0 0.0% 3 15.0% 20 100.0%
Washington R 6 100.0% 0 0.0% 0 0.0% 6 100.0%

Wayne

R

33

82.5%

0

0.0%

7

17.5%

40

100.0%

Wells   4 57.1% 1 14.3% 2 28.6% 7 100.0%
White R 8 100.0% 0 0.0% 2 20.0% 10 100.0%
Whitley   9 100.0% 0

0.0%

0 0.0% 9 100.0%

Indiana Total

 

2,374

82.5%

24

0.8%

478

16.6%

2,876

100.0%

Other Location

 

334

68.4%

14

2.9%

140

28.7%

488

100.0%

Grand Total

 

2,708

80.5%

38

1.1%

618

18.4%

3,364

100.0%

Chart I-C, Profile of Respondents

Dentist surveys with at least one response were screened for restrictive Action Codes on the practice license using the HPB database. Then, using Question 1 of the survey, activity status was determined (see Appendix A). Of the 2,708 dentists who renewed their Indiana license and returned a survey with at least one response, 37 had missing or unusable information for Question 1. Of the remaining 2,671 dentists, 2,536 were classified as "Active," and 12 were excluded from the pool because of restrictive Action Codes.

Chart I-D, Active Dentists with an Indiana License, by State of Principal Practice Location

The group of 2,536 active dentists without restrictive Action Codes was analyzed for principal position location using Question 5A of the survey. Of these dentists, 2,155 had a principal practice location in Indiana, 102 had a principal practice location in a Neighbor State (Illinois, Kentucky, Michigan or Ohio), and 226 had a principal practice location elsewhere. Fifty-three (53) dentists had missing or unusable information concerning their principal practice location.

Map I-D* Active Dentists with an Indiana License, by State and County of Principal Practice Location (Indiana and Neighbor States Only)

* This dot density map depicts the relative density of dentists in a particular county, not the precise location of each dentist.

Chart I-E, Active Dentists with an Indiana License and an Indiana Principal Practice Location, by Training Status and Federal or Non-federal Employment

Data related to the 2,155 dentists with a principal practice location in Indiana were then further analyzed to assure that all active dentists would be included in the analysis. Data from Question 5B of the survey were used in conjunction with Question 1 responses to determine whether a dentist was active. If a dentist did not respond to Question 1 (activity) but reported an Indiana principal practice location and recorded hours in Question 513, s/he was included in the analysis pool. This added 25 dentists to the original pool of 2,155. The resulting pool of 2,180 dentists was then evaluated for training status (Question 2), and federal or non-federal employment (Question 9). Dentists who specified that they were residents-in-training (21) or that they were federally-employed (13) were excluded, leaving 2,146 dentists in the analysis pool.