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Indiana State Department of Health

Food Protection Home > Foodborne Illness > FBI Bacteria and Viral Charts FBI Bacteria and Viral Charts

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MAJOR FOODBORNE ILLNESSES

DISEASE

PATHOGEN

INCUBATION PERIOD/MEAN

DURATION OF ILLNESS

SYMPTOMS

FOODS IMPLICATED

TYPE OF ILLNESS

RESERVOIR

Salmonellosis

Salmonella
(facultative)
 BACTERIA

8-72 hours
18-36 hours

2-3 days

Abdominal pain, headache, fever, nausea, diarrhea, chills, cramps

Poultry, eggs, meat, meat products, milk, smoked fish, protein foods, juice

Infection

Domestic and wild animals, humans

Shigellosis

Shigella
(facultative)
BACTERIA

1-7 days
1-3 days

Indefinite

Diarrhea, fever, chills, cramps, lassitude, nausea, dehydration

Moist, mixed foods, milk, potato, tuna, bean, and macaroni salads, apple cider

Infection

Human feces, flies

Listeriosis

Listeria
 monocytogenes
BACTERIA

2 days – 3 weeks
4-21 days

Indefinite; high fatality in the immuno-compromised

Nausea, vomiting, chills, headache, fever, backache, meningitis

Unpasteurized dairy foods, vegetables, meat, poultry, seafood, raw and smoked fish, ready-to-eat foods

Infection

Domestic and wild animals, humans, soil

Staphylococcus

Staphylococcus
aureus
BACTERIA

1-6 hours
2-4 hours

1-2 days

Nausea, cramps, vomiting, dehydration

Reheated foods, ham, poultry, dairy foods, custards, potato salad, cream-filled foods

Intoxication

Humans (skin, throat, nose), animals

Clostridium
perfringens

Clostridium
perfringens
BACTERIA

8-22 hours
10 hours

24 hours

Abdominal pain, diarrhea, gas

Meat, meat products, gravy, thick foods that are held at a low temp or cooled slowly

Infection/
Intoxication

Human intestinal tract, animals, soil

Bacillus
cereus

Bacillus
cereus
BACTERIA

½ - 5 hours; 8-16 hours
½ -5 hrs; 12 hrs

6-24 hours;
12 hours

Nausea and vomiting; Diarrhea, abdominal cramps

Rice, custards, seasonings, dry food mixes, spices, salads, casseroles, milk, sauces, meats

Intoxication

Soil, dust

Campylobacter

Campylobacter
 jejuni
BACTERIA

2-5 days

5-7 days
3-5 days

Diarrhea which may be watery or bloody, fever, nausea, headache

Chicken, unpasteurized milk, water

Infection

Domestic and wild animals (intestinal tract)

E. coli 0157:H7

Escherichia
 coli
BACTERIA

2-5 days

5-10 days
2-5 days

Diarrhea (may be bloody), abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, fever, HUS

Undercooked ground beef, imported cheeses, unpasteurized milk or juice, cider, alfalfa sprouts

Infection/
Intoxication

Human intestinal tract, animals (especially cattle)

Botulism

Clostridium
botulinum
BACTERIA

12-36 hours; 72 or more hours

Several days – year
18-36 hours

Vertigo, inability to swallow, respiratory paralysis, visual disturbances

Improperly processed low-acid canned goods, garlic in oil, grilled onions, meat, stew, baked potatoes

Intoxication

Soil, water

Viral
Gastroenteritis

Snow Mountain, calicivirus
virus

24-48 hours

24-60 hours
36 hours

Diarrhea, vomiting, nausea, cramps, headache, muscle aches, tiredness, slight fever

Water, ready-to-eat foods (salad, sandwiches, bread) shellfish

N/A

Human intestinal tract

Hepatitis A

Hepatitis A
VIRUS

7-50 days

Several weeks to months
25-30 days

Fever, fatigue, stomach pain, nausea, dark urine, jaundice

Ready-to-eat foods, fruit and juice, milk products, shellfish, salads, vegetables, sandwiches, water

N/A

Infected people

Norovirusn infection

Noro Virus

12-96 hours

1-2 days

Low-grade fever, chills, headache, muscle ache, and fatigue

Ready-to-eat foods (salad, sandwiches, bread) shellfish

Infection

Human intestinal tract