Manure Management

IDEM’s Guidance Manual for Indiana’s Confined Feeding Program [PDF] explains key requirements for manure management at confined feeding operations (CFOs) and concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs). Below are two manure-related topics that have generated interest.

Placing Solid Manure Piles in Fields

The Confined Feeding Operation Rule, 327 Indiana Administrative Code 19 [PDF], regulates the staging of solid manure – which in Indiana is usually poultry manure – in crop or pasture fields if the manure comes strictly from a regulated CFO or CAFO. If a regulated CFO or CAFO sells their manure, or the manure comes from non-regulated, unknown, or multiple sources, it would be regulated under the Fertilizer Rule, 355 Indiana Administrative Code 8 [PDF], administered by the Office of Indiana State Chemist (OISC).

Under either of these rules, if the manure is left for more than 72 hours, it must be bermed or covered. Bermed or covered staged manure must be land applied within 90 days. The staged manure must meet setbacks as defined in the rules. Solid manure may not be staged in standing water, floodways, or waterways.

Application of Manure to Frozen or Snow-Covered Ground

Small CFOs with 120 days or less storage may apply for frozen ground or snow-covered ground spreading of manure under 327 Indiana Administrative Code (IAC) 19-14-4(i). These applications are considered on a case-by-case basis for approval through an alternate compliance approach under 327 IAC 19-5-1. CAFO sized operations are not eligible to apply for the IDEM commissioner’s approval because of the explicit prohibition under 327 IAC 19-14-4(e). The only option for CAFO farmers who feel that they need an approval to surface apply to frozen or snow-covered ground is to apply for a National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System CAFO Individual Permit under 327 IAC 15-16.

When soils meet frozen or snow-covered ground conditions, injection or incorporation of manure into the soil on the same day is not considered surface application and is not prohibited.

Farm operators who have an emergency that creates an immediate need to surface apply manure to frozen or snow-covered ground due to unforeseen circumstances beyond their control should contact their CFO Compliance Inspector for assistance prior to application.