GIS allows questions to be asked from the map side
or from the database side.
Questions can be asked by either side because the map graphics and database records are linked via a unique number.
It allows questions to be framed geographically
GIS is a way of organizing database records by tying them to geographically synchronized slices of the world so that “where” questions can be asked and answered.
GIS Project Examples:
"The realization is growing that almost everything that happens in a public policy context also happens in a geographic one: transportation planners, water resources studies, education subcommittees, redistricting boards, planning commissions, and crime task forces all must consider questions of where along with the usual ones of how, and why, and how much will it cost. GIS, by answering the first question, helps to answer the others.”
R.W. Greene, GIS in Public Policy
How to explain GIS video - Geospatial Revolution.